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Unmanned aerial vehicles. Drones. History.

Unmanned aerial vehicles. Drones. History.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles


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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) - Old dream of man. They appear in ancient times folklore: flying carpets and other fabulous vehicle is controlled by the thoughts of the hero, that is, with the help of electromagnetic waves directed action.

What is the current UAV, which reached heights of human thought in the field of radio-controlled drones?

History creating a UAV aircraft is estimated by historians to 1903 years, when the brothers Wilbur and Orvill Rayt made the first flight on the Flyer 1 aircraft, equipped with an internal combustion engine. In 1910, the American designer and inventor Kettering created the world's first unmanned aerial vehicle for military use. Engineered them to charge the unit with 120 kg, before reaching the goal, in accordance with established thereon clockwork movement and stopped falling in the prescribed place, such as bomb. At the request of the US Army in 1918, 45 produced such drones, called "flying torpedoes." Their development and improvement continued until 1930 year and were completed due to insufficient efficiency.

 

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

 

In parallel with the development of Kettering unmanned aircraft were American firm "Sperry" ( "aerial torpedo") and the German "Simmons and Halske".

In 1933 year UAV «QueenBee» was created in the UK to start from the ships of the Navy. This drone had a speed of up to 170 km / h, the maximum lifting height 5000 m and was the first machine with the possibility of re-use, including as an aerial target during training pilots in air combat.

In the Soviet Union in 1933 year in Moscow held avtopilotiruemogo flights and then a radio-controlled aircraft TB-3konstruktsii R.G.Chachikyana, but due to the fluctuations in the speed of other technical reasons the flight the pilot corrected.

1935 year project implemented glider with a torpedo on board special purpose PSN, which was suspended under the wing of the aircraft TB-3, 1940 but the project was closed.

Works on creation of the UAV in the USSR continued 1940-1941 years, when they were created and carried out tests with the aircraft telecontrol TB-3 «bomb» (RG Chachikyan), SB (Burning designer), UT-3 (designer Nicholas). On this basis, the production was supposed to establish telemechanical aircraft, drones and bombers. But the war began. In 1941, the radio-controlled bombers used as drones to destroy bridges and other strategic facilities.

In the United States at this time it was created radio-controlled drone aircraft based in-17, BQ-7 «Castor" - a radio-controlled flying bomb, and 1950-1953 GG - Radio-controlled bomb «Tarzon».

In Germany during World War II were the development of radio-controlled drones - bombs HenschelHs 293, Fritz XRakety Enzian, as well as a cruise missile prototype samoletV-1 Vergeltungswaffe 1 (Fi-103, project developers and Robert Lusser FrittsGosslau). In 1944 was vypuschensamolet year-round (on autopilot) with a rocket engine using liquid fuel, "the V-1» with a range of up to 240 km and speeds of up to 656 km / h, altitude up to 3050 m.

After the war, work on the design of the UAV in the advanced countries of the world continued. Since 1955 1990 to the end-strokes drones have been used primarily for intelligence gathering, photography. During this period, the US sozdanybespilotniki Ryan Firebee JB-2 "Loon", Lockheed Martin M-21 and D-21, "Pioneer" RQ-2A, MQ-1 «Predator» and their modifications.

In 2000-ies has been further development of the creation of drones new generation. Among them - the unmanned helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles for different purposes: from small stealth reconnaissance aircraft to strike fighter - bomber with an increased wingspan capable of performing takeoff and landing of modern aircraft carriers. These UAVs are capable of launching unguided raketso his side.

Serious UAV development is carried out in Russia. At the same time more and more widely developed drones - robots ("drones") used in various, including, for peaceful purposes.

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