Ilyushin Il-18 (IL-18)
IL-18 (NATO coding "Cully» (Coot)) - passenger aircraft for medium-range air lines made under the scheme four-engine turboprop nizkoplan. Single-fin tail. The first Soviet turboprop airliner.
History of creation
In 1950-ies, when it became evident that the passenger aircraft equipped with piston engines do not meet the rapid growth of air transport, there is a need in high-speed and spacious aircraft equipped with gas turbine engines. The OKB Tupolev went through the establishment on the basis of Tu-16 jet bomber Tu-104 passenger aircraft. The Ilyushin Design Bureau decided to design a passenger aircraft, equipped with a theater.
25.05.1956 year adopted a decree of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union 703-404 number about creating Il18 passenger aircraft with four turboprop engines. Draft project Il18 approved SV Ilyushin 26.08.195, 1956 in September, construction began on the first eusperimentalnogo sample. In June 1957 at the Central Aerodrome in Moscow held a review of government leaders and the party headed by NS Khrushchev first Il18, on the proposal of the First Secretary of the Moscow City Party Committee EA Furtsevoy the aircraft was given the name "Moscow".
The prototype made its first flight 04.07.1957, having flown from the Central aerodrome named after MV Frunze in the town of Zhukovsky (the duration of the flight - hour 1 57 minutes). The trial was attended by planes equipped with engines AI-20 and NK-4. The results of the test showed that the design AI20 AG Ivchenko more reliable, so it is elected for mounting on serial aircraft.
The experimental aircraft was calculated at 75 people. In 1958 was created version Il18A having take-off mass of 58 tonnes and increased to 89 places the passenger compartment. It was the first model in the series. Il1959A use aircraft with engines NK-18 was discontinued due to unreliable operation of the motor from January 4 years. Modification Il8B with increased up to 14 tons of payload and greater take-off weight (61,5tonn) appeared in the same year 1958. 20.04.1959 were two of the first passenger flight Il18 route Adler-Moscow and Moscow-AlmaAta.
In 1960 was created Il18V different from the version Il18B increased level of facilities and the use of a great flight and navigation equipment.
The Design Bureau in 1965 Il18E plane, was designed, which was designed to 120 places and had even more comfortable interior. Last passenger model - aircraft Il18D, where instead of HPT AI20K used AI20M, added to the center section of the wing fuel tanks, as well as call control system is mounted on the landing. With the additional fuel increased flight range.
In addition to passenger aircraft, it has been created in the bureau and other variants: cargo, service, patrol, including:
EW aircraft Il20;
airborne command post Il22;
aircraft for ice reconnaissance Il24.
One of the Il-18V converted to fly to Antarctica: in the passenger cabin installed additional fuel tanks, which enabled uveklichit fuel supply (31 thousand liters). It should be noted that the baton "Moscow-Antarctica" served usually Il18 planes that flew into the African sky, performing a passing freight and passenger transport on regional air routes.
In 1958-1959 years on airplanes Il18 established twenty world records for altitude and flight range with different payloads.
Planes Il18 because of its efficiency, comfort and safety caused the global interest in the market, so most of the foreign companies have bought data airplanes. He became the first Soviet passenger plane, which is in great demand at the global level: for seventeen foreign companies have built over 100 aircraft.
Mass production at the factory number 30 «Banner of Labor", which was located on the Khodynka Field near Central Airport in Moscow on 1959 1978 year.
Construction of IL-18
IL-18 - is an all-metal monoplane, which has a low-wing with four turboprop engines AI-20 and deck scheme plumage.
Aerodynamic design completed, taking into account the highest possible safety and the need to achieve economic indicators fuel consumption. Particular attention was paid to the design of the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing.
Wing aircraft IL-unswept 18, 10 has an elongation and contraction 3. Thanks to well selected at a time aerodynamic configuration was able to get good speed performance, directional stability and safety of the flight at various angles of attack. By reducing flight speed to stall speed (about 180 km / h), the aircraft can back up to speed, responding effectively to all controls.
On the wing pairs placed TMD AI-20. Internal engines have more advanced nacelle from the lower side of the wing. They are used for fixing and removing the main landing gear.
Choosing towards turboprop engines on IL-18 in while actively implemented turbojet engines, due, above all, the best indicators of profitability, which was confirmed by long-term operation of the aircraft.
The first copies of the IL-18 staffed engines AI-20 or NK-4. After a series of tests of AI-20 recognized more reliable, and in the subsequent production models began to complete exactly this type of engines.
A significant step forward was the use on the liner IL-18 hermetic fuselage with turbocharging systems and air-conditioning compressor from the engine, which provided a normal state of health of the crew and passengers at any height.
Due to the occurrence during the flight of excess pressure inside the fuselage was necessary to adapt the structure under fatigue stresses. Especially carefully examined the problem of repetitive stress and fatigue strength, because at that time the plane crashed British "Comet" due to fatigue failure of the fuselage skin.
In order to protect the flight, it was necessary to develop a lot of new techniques and design solutions with respect to all of the fuselage and its individual units and systems.
The good economic performance of the IL-18 confirmed its successful and long-term operation. The main indicator of profitability - it is a huge weight returns payload equal to 46-49% take-off weight of the aircraft. This was achieved due to the rational use of new materials, design and calculation methods. It is possible to obtain a smaller consumption of operating cost than that of counterparts of the time, not only due to the weight returns, but also good aerodynamic data of the aircraft engines and AI-20, which has a low consumption of fuel per flight 1 km.
IL-18 aircraft design is characterized by high adaptability, thus reducing the cost of the aircraft, its maintenance and repair.
To the aircraft was durable, it was necessary to systematically upgrade, it was a constant concern of all employees of OKB headed by General Designer. IL-18 has received many modifications. Each subsequent modernization differ in the number of passenger seats, an increased level of comfort, reliability and safety of passenger transportation, increased flight range indicator, which increased the total profitability of the aircraft.
Driving salon IL-18
Empty weight: 33760kg.
Wing area: 140.0kv.m.
Cruising speed: 625km / h..
Maximum speed: 685km / h..
Flight range with maximum load: 4300km.
Number of seats: 120mest.
Maximum takeoff weight: 64000kg.
Maximum payload: 13 500kg.
Capacity of fuel tanks: 23700l.
Maximum range: 7100km.
the run length: 1000m.
path length: 800m.
interior length: 24.0m.
The width of the passenger compartment: 3.23m.
Cabin height: 2.00m.
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