IL-14. A photo. Characteristics. History.
IL-14 - a Soviet short-haul twin-engine piston aircraft. I began to develop in 40-ies because of the need to replace outdated Il-12 and 2-Lee. The first flight was made in July 13 1950 years.
After IL-12 state testing staff OKB Ilyushin We began work on the creation of a class of passenger aircraft that would be able to make a landing, even in case of failure of one engine. The first copy of the IL-14 was very similar to the IL-12. A significant difference was perhaps that the size and mass of the flying machine. Initially, the designers of the plans was the idea to establish a plane 2 piston engine, air-cooled DB-73, but the project was shelved due to the impracticability of this type of engine the desired objectives of the new aircraft.
History of the IL-14
Upon completion of state testing previous versions of IL-12 designers Ilyushin bureau started designing the new machine, which will be able to make a safe landing with one engine working. The first developments looks very reminiscent of the IL-12 plane. The difference was the installation of engines such as DB-73 with increased takeoff power. But further study has shown that an increase in the thrust does not solve the tasks. For a flight with one engine operating the new wing, and the mechanization and improved aerodynamic qualities it has been developed. To reduce the air resistance of the chassis system has been improved during takeoff, allowing faster clean rack. Conducted work on feathering propellers.
The first flight of the prototype machine prototype IL-14 50 held in July, under the direction of V. Kokkinaki. This flight lasted only 15 minutes due to overheating of the heat exchanger. After that it has been redesigned exhaust system, which was merged with the air. It has also been extended and vertical tail, which in turn improved the quality of management. Alterations undergone and the cabin was increased glass area for a better view.
Studies have been initiated by the State Commission winter 1951 years and finished in August 52 years. The result was a report in which it was noted that the new machine is far superior in terms of the previous model.
operation of the device in a variety of climatic conditions has been initiated from 1952 years. All flight tests showed the aircraft with the best hand. The car was faster and more cost-effective than IL-12. In December this year 52 liner was recommended for serial production, and the issue was launched in the autumn of 53 years by decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Passengers IL-14 began carrying November 1954 years.
In the future, the aircraft could place on the board of the 24 32 to passengers. In addition, it has been designed and manufactured a lot of modifications with special assignments. This airliner actively operated on routes to the end of the USSR 80-ies, after which he was written off. Such a large use of lines can be explained by the fact that the car was reliable and high quality, but the main reason was that it had nothing to replace. Repair of aircraft IL-14 ceased to be engaged in only with 86 years.
Features and application of IL-14
Currently in Russia there are only three types of machines Il-14, which can continue to fly. All three handsets recovered enthusiasts forces. All financial costs are also laid on their shoulders. Recovered liners are based on small airfields in our country.
IL-14 has been used in hostilities between the Egyptians and the Israelis. With this Ila transported officers, one such flight was shot down by a fighter. According to official figures in military conflicts were shot down for at least two devices, in addition, a lot of cars were destroyed on the ground. For civil traffic Il-14 used in many countries around the world.
By creating multiple versions of IL-14 used for military, civil and research tasks. With it, the poles were conducted research, in addition, IL-14 widely used by geologists and cartographers. Wide application and great flight characteristics make this unit one of the most outstanding among all the world's aircraft line.
A possible solution was the engine AL-82FN. In addition, we designed a new wing, changed his landing mechanization. The new wing has allowed to raise a quick tearing machine from the runway. The climb was a bit faster by reducing the time to clean the chassis and reduce feathering propeller. When you save the layout features of improved aircraft passenger cabin Front Range exploited center of gravity, which in turn made it more stable on the ground and made it possible to remove the tail support.
July 13 50, the flight of the first prototype IL-14 with engines AL-82FN (commander Vladimir Kokkinaki) was committed. The flight lasted 15 minutes due to high temperature in the air-heating system. For the second aircraft experienced class (IL-14P) have designed a new exhaust and heating system in one unit. Increase the volume of the vertical stabilizer and improved overview for the pilot. The first flight of the IL-14P was committed 01.10.1950. On December six months later began public testing. And upon completion August 30 52 year concluded that IL-14 more effective in piloting and landing.
Regarding wing IL-14 can note its unique layout aerodynamics. Swipe Profile CP-5 was constant. But thanks to 3-° from chord (reverse sweep on the line) improved flushing performance and exclude the possibility of shear flows during maneuvers at low speeds. The boundary layer in the main part of the wing was made thicker, and it is here that appeared streaming breakdown. Gradually increasing the angle he was shifted to the end of the wing. This remained high aileron efficiency to safeguarding the take-off at low speeds.
At the same time we developed a sustainable use of double-pump hydraulic system. Operating pressure was 10,8 MPa, and a reduction of hydraulic losses resulting in reduced time and release retraction twice. Fixed an improved propeller AV-50 allowed to reduce the negative resistance has rendered propeller engine.
AB-50 - a construction with double action.
- Firstly, the transfer of the blades under the action occurred enhanced oil pressure involved, without the centrifugal force. This was equally as large and in small steps.
- Secondly, the transition of the blade feathered position or conclusion of it was accomplished with the help of forced fryuger pump and cylinder screws specialized design.
Much work EDO staff assigned to the improvement of the anti-icing (antifreeze) system, integrated air-heat and heating plan. By bringing it all together, it was decided to create a whole range of anti-icing system, working through the exhaust gases from the engine. The exhaust system is composed of collectors, similar to half-ring. They were not related to each other, separately connected to the nozzles placed on the left and right sides of the engine.
Nozzles in turn is connected to a heat exchanger installed in the left and right parts of the nacelle. This placement was more successful than in the IL-12. The heated air is directed from the heat exchangers in the anti-icing system. In some embodiments heated air leaving the tubes in heating or in both systems.
Immediately after all the improvements and modifications of the aircraft began flight testing on resistance to different weather conditions. Ultimately, IL-14P described himself as a safe and reliable aircraft that can sit on a small runway even unpaved. Fairly economical. The serial production of the aircraft enrolled after routine tests of passage in the GK NII VVS thirtieth December 1952 years.
Regular passenger flights began two years later. In 1955 year it became the main trunk type of aircraft IL-14 for "Aeroflot". IL-14P on 18 places and IL-14M on 24 passenger seats were the main passenger aircraft on domestic and international flights. But in the early 60-x in the USSR appeared turbine passenger aircraft An-24, which in turn transferred the IL-14 for use exclusively on local airlines. The number of seats on the aircraft gradually increased from the 28 36 to places.
Variants of IL-14
IL-14S, IL-14SI, IL-14PS, IL-14SO - airplanes increased comfort
IL-14G - freight (maximum transported weight - 3500 kg)
IL-14T - Transport
IL-14ZOD - transport-landing
IL-14FK, IL-14FKM - reconnaissance and photography.
IL-14M - export the plane to 24 place. Designed and exported 119 machines.
IL-14LL - flying laboratory
Aircraft IL-14 have invested a great contribution to the development of civil aviation in the USSR. Thanks to them, the carriage of passengers is much increased. With improved radio navigation equipment and created terrestrial radio equipment "Aeroflot" was able to quickly adapt to passenger traffic.
The period of operation of IL-14 lasted until 80-ies. They were mostly local destination flights in Siberia and the Far North. Already in the early 90-ies spent a long time the machine began to massively write off. Use of IL-14 time took more than thirty years. This is due to the fact that a long time was not able to replace it with patterns.
Repair work was carried out in two factories: 1953 - aviaremzavod №402 in Bykov, 1957 - №407 factory in Minsk. And in the year 1986-14 repair Il was discontinued. there were three machines working in Russia at this time. IL-14 RA-0543G was at the airport Gorelov, the other two IL-14T RA-1114K and IL-14T FLA-01707 - at Moscow airport on Orlovka.
City Tashkent, №84 Plant: in the year 1954 28 14-Il was built in 55-m - 52 instance, and in 1956 115 built flying machines. Between 57 58 by year 118 constructed IL-14P. Along with these types of built Il-14T. 65 aircraft were built.
The plant №30 in Moscow in the period from the 1956 1958 year by 375 was released IL-14P. Along with him on separate bases were constructed IL-14T and IL-14FK. If the first type of 291 fired unit, the second just 31. The total number of generated IL-series aircraft was 14 1348 aviamashin, of which the USSR had 1065 plants, Czechoslovakia - 203, and in the GDR - 80.
In addition to civilian use, IL-14 and used for combat purposes. The well-known fact that during the Six Day War between Egypt and Israel were shot down 2 aircraft in its class, and another three were destroyed on GDP.
|Length m||21,31 (IL-14P), 22,31 (IL-14M and later models)|
|Height (tail), m||7,8|
|Engines||Shvetsov Ash 2 82 1950T power hp|
|Max. speed km / h||430|
|Cruising speed, km / h||345|
|Range of flight, km||1250|
|Flight height, m||6500 (with oxygen equipment)|
|Empty weight of the aircraft, kg||12700|
|Maximum takeoff weight, kg||18500|
|Maximum number of passengers||36|
- Aviation and literature
- A uniform
- Military aviation
- Civil Aviation
- Helpful information
- The calendar
- Aviation and music
- game air
- Plane Crash
- Aviation and cinema
- Educational establishments
- Author's articles
- Assemblies and units of air equipment
- The probability of catastrophes
- Online Timetable
- The calculation of the distance
Best in the world of aviation