Mi-14. A photo. History. Characteristics.
Mi-14 was designed based on the Mi-4 to replace Mi-4 lines in service in the Soviet Union. The trial version is called In-14 and made its first flight in 1973 year. As planned by the designer of a helicopter amphibious, and for the normal dive to the water surface had to make the bottom of the fuselage shape of a boat and floats on the sides set - "gills". Judging by the plano-convex profile of cross-section, it was planned that such a mechanism would create during the flight extra lift. However, in practice they have received from the additional resistance. In order to avoid the water surface touches the tail rotor blades and tail boom, under the last installed an additional float. Separately conducted manufacture of the boat, inside it were the cargo bay and fuel tanks.
Since the machine amphibious type, for it provided a wheeled chassis, which is removed at the bottom of the boat (two front landing gear) and "gills" (basic two-wheeled racks).
"Initiative-14M" to perform combat Mi-2 jobs manned sighting and search "Kalmar" system and radar.
Also in the helicopter tooling includes: a computing device "Lily of the Valley", the data transmission system "Bullfinch" magnetometer "Orsha" marker buoy "float" and a winch from the CEO "Oka-2». In the pits, and temperature-controlled pressurized compartment housed in two cassettes 36 buoys RSL-HM "Chinar" or 8 RWB-H "Niva". You could instead install torpedo buoys AT-1, which can be used for the purpose of destruction of submarines, or other types of weapons. For example, the Mi-14 structure designed to conduct aimed fire torpedoes AME-1 «Swift», which can be run from a height of not more than 17 m. Also in the pits compartment can be placed anti-bomb PLAB-50-64, PLAB-250-120 and PLAB-MK.
Power Mi-14 even enough to transport a nuclear bomb "Scalp", which weighs tons 1,6. These weapons can easily break the enemy submarine at a distance of up to 800 m. In order to provide a still hovering at included sonar (SAS), in equipment systems involved ACS-14 automated control and below the tail boom set Doppler drift angle and Diss-15 speed.
The structure of the Mi-14 crew consists of two pilots and a navigator-operator, the place for which it was fitted in the cargo cabin. Made Mi-14 engaged Moscow Helicopter Plant, which is located in a suburban punk. The assembly of the boat for the Mi-14 instructed the Kazan helicopter plant, which housed a branch of OKB. Mile.
Mi-14PL - primary anti-submarine modification;
Mi-14PLM - a modified version of the MI-14PL
Mi-14VT - minesweeper and supplier minutes
Mi-14PS - search and rescue option
Mi-14PW - Mi-14PL in the Polish operation
The first boat docking an fuselage serial Mi-8 1967 years spent in the summer. On rotorcraft turboprops TV2-117 were established, which does not run on batteries. Therefore, the need to set the APU was not. At first instance Mi-14 no nodes have been installed for mounting weapons, and there was no radar and other anti-submarine equipment. The machine is only demo flights. In July, the first in 1967-14 has received in "Aeroflot" registration number 11051 and began his public trial.
The first flight of the Mi-14 1.08.1967 was made at the factory site in the suburbs. At the helm was a test pilot Yu Shvachko. Later, the helicopter moved in Lyubertsy, where he continued his inspection. When fully convinced of the controllability and stability of the Mi-14 in the air and on land, went to check the "amphibious" in the aquatic environment. It was held in the southern port of Moscow. Dive helicopter on the water surface was carried out with the help of a crane. flights over water is then started. The object of the test was the same Moscow River in sparsely populated areas near the village conversation.
At the end of 1967-punk began reworking of two Mi-8 in New In-14, which were intended for the joint participation in state tests. Boats for them to do, as in the first instance, in the city of Kazan. However, unlike the first "amphibious", they search and sighting systems were installed.
In 1968 was some problems were identified during the state tests. In particular it found insufficient margin of stability during flight. With the development of speed over 180 km / h, the helicopter begins to throw from side to side. These fluctuations in aviation history is called "Dutch step." Get rid of the problem can be the standard way, but this model can not be set right tailplane, so find another way. On the "gills" placed the keel washers that increased resistance techniques at high speeds.
During the tests showed poor resistance in-14 and on the water during movement. The third prototype was converted by replacing the "gills" with inflatable floats.
If you add up the floats, their niche-fitting lid fairing made of metal. In place of the keel washers put more elegant fins. We conducted well completion system chassis. By placing them on damper settings eliminate vibrations of the front legs, which in turn allowed the helicopter Mi-14 to take off from the takeoff and landing in autorotation, without risking damage to the nose landing gear.
After completing factory tests, the Mi-14 0412, tail number was transferred to the airfield Kirov in Feodosia. The plan was to move the instance of its own power, but halfway there breaking the fuel system, and the tester L. Indeevu had a chance to make an emergency landing. Most likely, the planting was carried out in autorotation. After landing on the collective farm, the helicopter wheels stuck in the ground and rolled over on its side. Fortunately, the crew survived in this accident.
After an emergency case to the state testing program hooked up again in the prototype-14. It should be noted well coordinated work of engineers PK Oleinik and VP Komarova, pilots OE Efimov and YN Iglina, navigators, RI Subarova and RD Yumaguzina.
Tests on the water showed that the agitation in the above three points and tendency to bow burrowing, which increases the risk of contact between the rotor blades with the water surface. They also found that when suspended at a height of meters above the water 10 cockpit glass sprinkles intensively. This has led to reduce the speed of movement allows the water to 20 km / h because of the propensity of the machine to the burying.
In 1969 was produced in the fourth machine-14, equipping it with serial engines TVZ-117M. A first phase of joint state tests, which resulted in the preliminary permission to build a production helicopter was completed two years later. And, despite the fact that the resolution has been received to implement serial production of this model it was possible only with 1974 years after completion of search and sighting equipment.
Tests of the main gearbox has been completed only in 1975 In spite of this, in 1973, the customer began the final stage of state tests with "defective" in-14. Soon to test specimens and hooked the first production car. Supervised flights to the final stage of the test pilot test OE Efimov. First checked landing at the airport in autorotation, and then - in the water. Checks are carried out in the night time and in severe weather conditions.
The first landing on the water with mileage was successfully accomplished test pilot GR Karapetyan 18.10.1974. After him also successfully put-14 in the water managed to O. Efimov and B. Varakin. Act on completion of the joint state tests was signed at the end of the year 1974.
Two years later, the USSR Council of Ministers Resolution of the helicopter in-14 put into service with the name Mi-14PL (ASW).
The first production version received the designation Mi-14BT (towing trawl). The tail portion of the cargo compartment placed towing equipment trawls, controlled remotely. Complete design modifications succeeded in 1973, and since 1979, he was put into service.
1974 city - engineered rescue modification of the Mi-14PS that could evacuate up to 19 injured people. Unlike the Mi-14PL became wider doorway cargo cabin, mounted winch, which has capacity up to 300 kg, which could at the same time to raise three people. The nose of the Mi-14PS installed floodlights and search the PAC. The helicopter could drop liferafts 10 and 20 save the life of the victims. The helicopter could carry even towing rafts. At the armed Mi-14PS put in 1979 year.
Characteristics of the Mi-14:
|Mi-14: basic characteristics|
|Normal takeoff weight, kg||
|Maximum speed, km / h||
|Cruising speed, km / h||
|The ceiling is a dynamic, m||
|Ferry range, km||
|Tactical range, km||
|The diameter of the helicopter rotor, m||
|The length of the helicopter with rotating propellers, m||
|The height of the rotating tail rotor, m||
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