Fighter F-22 Raptor
Fighter F-22 Raptor is a multi-purpose apparatus developed jointly by the most successful companies in the US aircraft industry. This project was launched to replace the outdated model of a fighter F-15 Eagle. The new aircraft class F-22 is the sole representative of the fighters of the fifth class, which is in service with the US Air Force.
The history of the aircraft F-22
The US military has long planned to order the production of more high-quality machines, which would differ in their characteristics from all existing aircraft. So, at the beginning of the year 1981 the Air Force command were made the basic requirements for a new fighter. The most important equipment was the most thorough and new avionics and engines with computer controlled. In addition, the machine has to be virtually invisible to all enemy units, and for all that it has to perform a lot of functions and missions.
In the summer of 86 years competition was launched to create a new unit, with the two teams, who were involved in the creation of the new unit, the design allocated 50 months were organized. Both products were ready at the beginning of the year 90, they were designated as the product YF-22 and the product YF-23. Due to the fact that a large number of funds, the manufacturers had to drop the radar installation for the side-view and even some system to protect optics and has been used in the process of designing and manufacturing in 80-ies. Sami customers were forced to abandon the equipment, because the installation of advanced equipment would lead to higher cost of further development of the project F-22. The winner of this competition the car was announced in the summer of the year 1991, which was created following companies: Lockheed, Boeing and Dynamics.
The first aircraft model F-22 made separation from the runway in September 97 years. In comparison with the original version of the project, this unit has a power plant with much higher rates of thrust - 15,8 thousand kgs. The engines have the ability to change the plane in which the thrust vectors go. This machine is different from the version of the prototyping and the structure of the body.
For serial production of F-22 2001 fighter started in the year. And in 2004, the first machine of this class have been transferred to the military base of the US Air Force under the name "Nellis". Since the start of production and to 2004 years 51 fighter was created. The first combat squadron consisting of aircraft F-22, 2006 was equipped in the year and was based at Langley.
In the early 2006, the US government planned to order the aircraft of this class 384, 2008 year but this amount was reduced to 188, and at the time it was ready already 127 units. This decrease was due to an order by the global crisis in the economy and the relatively high cost of the aircraft. Due to all this, the government has made big bets on a cheaper and efficient machine F-35. In addition, in 2009, the government has reduced funding for the project fighter F-22 Raptor. Also in 2011, the US Congress announced the termination of further development of the aircraft in favor of the F-35. Last serial machine F-22 Raptor was made in December 2011 years. Total mass production was created 195 machines of this type.
Features design multipurpose fighter F-22 Raptor
The basis of the development of the new car designers put basic credo: the first saw - first destroyed. For these indicators in a car was found a lot of the best masking systems and reduce the visibility of the type of Stealth.
A feature of this fighter was the placement of weapons in the interior of the aircraft, which significantly reduces visibility. Yet, on the wings of the aircraft has seating for weapons, but they were not used. This decision designers significantly increased the quality of the universal machine.
The body of the fighter on 40% consisted of new composite materials, the use of which significantly reduce the mass of the structure. These materials were presented carbon fiber with high resistance against overheating. As part of the design of widely used materials that absorb radio waves. Many items were equipped with PCM, which are made of bismalemida, they can withstand the temperature of 230 degree.
Such constructions as canopy chassis compartments were made in a sawtooth shape. This construction has contributed to more efficient dispersion of electromagnetic waves, which reduced the visibility of the machine in flight to enemy radar. Aircraft wings F-22 Raptor had a diamond shape with the vertical stabilizer of the type V-shaped. With regard to the survivability of the machine, it has been designed taking into account the aging shock incendiary shells produced in Russia, which had 30 millimeters caliber.
Powerplant Raptor is represented by two types of engines P & W F119-PW-100, which are equipped with jet nozzles with a flat design. This scheme significantly reduces the visibility in the infrared spectrum. On these engines installed afterburners. Thrust-thrust apparatus shown in 15 876 kg. Without the afterburning engine delivers power in 11 thousand kgs. It should be noted that, even without the use of afterburner machine easily overcomes the speed of sound, and these indicators have a matter of the number of aircraft. Fighter nozzle made of special ceramic materials which have a high rate of absorption of radio waves, which also reduces the visibility of the device.
The composition of avionics installation includes two computers with the designation of the CIP. Each system consists of this 66 modules, and at the heart of each module installed 32-bit processor i960 class.
The onboard radar system is represented by the installation of AN / APG-77, which is equipped with a phased array antenna. A feature of the antenna is that it consists of 2 thousand elements that produce radiation and reception of signals. This setting allows you to detect targets at a distance of 225 kilometers, and the range of radar installation is 525 kilometers. This radar is equipped with protection systems that prevent signal intercept enemy. Aircraft Radar allows you to find the goal in such a way that the enemy will not notice this and using their equipment.
As for the combat power of the aircraft F-22 Raptor, it was presented 20-millimeter cannon class M61A2 Vulcan, which can be used to produce 480 volleys. In addition, the car carrying six missiles air-to-air with the designation AIM-120C AMRAAM, also installed two missiles AIM-9M Sidewinder. On board the machine has been placed and the bomb load, which consisted of corrected bombs JDAM model and guided bomb GBU-39 type shells. A feature of F-22 fighter was that he could make the attack at supersonic flight speeds.
Fighter F-22 Raptor features:
|Modification||F / A-22A|
|Aircraft Length m||18,90|
|Wing area, m||78,04|
|engine's type||2 turbofan Pratt Whitney F119-PW-100|
|Static forced traction, kN||2 156,0 x +|
|Maximum speed km / h||2410 (M = 2.25)|
|Cruising speed, km / h||1963 (M = 1.82)|
|Ferry range, km||3219|
|The practical range with the PTB, km||2960|
|Combat range, km||759|
|Practical ceiling, m||19812|
|Max. operation overload||9,0|
8 missiles "air-to-air" or 6 bombs in internal bays
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