The plane "Concorde" - Aérospatiale - BAC Concorde
Concord (Original Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde.) - British-French supersonic passenger aircraft. Together with the Soviet Tu-144 falls into the category of supersonic aircraft operated for commercial purposes.
The history of the "Concorde" is dated 1962 year, when there was a merger of the two programs, the design of the passenger supersonic aircraft. The French side was represented by the company Sud Aviation, English - the company BAC. Jet engines for aircraft propulsion system created jointly by the French firm SNECMA and the British Rolls-Royce. In the entire history we have been released such models 20, 9 of them sold in the ownership of Air France and British Airways, even 5 machines transmitted by this airline company for a symbolic price.
The first prototype of the "Concorde" was raised in the air in the city of 1969 and 1976 since it was already exploited in the passenger transportation.
Registered of Air France and British Airways aircraft including the 7. Their operation was long 27 years for which were transported by regular and charter flights over 3 million passengers.
25.07.2000, the crash occurred when departing aircraft "Concorde" airport "Charles de Gaulle" (Paris). As a result, the crash killed 113 people. Market supersonic passenger airliner air travel has declined significantly since 11 September 2001 years. These two events were the reasons that "Concord" in 2013 was completely removed from service.
Production of "Concord" was completely divided between the English and French sides. It was as follows:
BAC (Eng.) - Making the front part of the fuselage with the nose retractable fairing, tail section of the fuselage with the vertical tail surfaces, the production of external elevons, air intakes of engines, electrical systems, oxygen equipment, fuel system, engine control systems and control equipment, fire suppression system , air conditioning and pressurization system, de-icing systems.
Sud Aviation (fr.) - Making the central part of the fuselage, the main part of the wing, the wing edge, inner elevons, hydraulic system, control system, navigation system, cruise control, radio, pressurization and air-conditioning installation.
Rolls-Royce (Eng.) - Engine production.
SNECMA (fr.) - Making afterburner nozzle engine and thrust reverser system.
Hispano-Suiza (Spanish.) - Making the main landing gear.
Dassault (fr.) - Manufacture wingtips.
Messier (fr.) - Nose landing gear issue.
Final assembly of the "Concord" were engaged simultaneously in two factories - at Filton and Toulouse.
The first production aircraft of this model was raised in the air 6.12.1973 in Toulouse. English serial version first flew 14.02.1974 city, except for prototypes and pre-production options, includes a series of 16 «Concord". The first two machines, № 201 and 202, were transferred to commercial operation, they were used for testing and certification. If we assume, together with the prototypes, all copies were released 20 aircraft (10 on the plant), as well as some spare parts to them. Thereafter, production rolled. The last plane left the factory in Filton, the 9.06.1980
"Concord" is made on a "tailless", is located low delta wing. The plane is created for long cruise at supersonic speeds. The main construction material used in the article "Concorde" - an alloy of aluminum RR58. Also used in the construction of nickel alloys, titanium and steel.
The fuselage is made of semi-monocoque type. The cross section of irregular oval shape with an extended upper part. The fuselage is made of heat-resistant aluminum alloy. Its length in the prior art was 56, 24 m in pre-production versions - 58,84 m, production models - 61,66 m. The width of the fuselage "Concorde" has reached the maximum 2,9 m.
The fuselage front section can be identified with a glazed cockpit, a middle section made along the central part of the wing and the tail section of the conical shape, made with the keel. The front and middle sections are sealed. The tail section is balancing the fuel tank, the luggage compartment and the compartment with the oxygen system equipment and air conditioning.
During the flight, due to thermal heating of the surface of the fuselage could lengthen on 24 cm.
The forward fuselage fairing busy as a cone, which swerved down to ensure better visibility of pilots landing and taking off, taxiing. The fairing is additional moving glazing which covers the control cabin during supersonic flight.
Management fairing and additional glazing was carried out from the cockpit by hydraulic drive. In case of failure of this equipment cabin was equipped with a periscope to perform an emergency landing.
Wing in the "Concord" oval, triangular sweep angle continuously varies along the wing span. At the wing tip sweep angle is about 60 °, a wing root - 80 °. Wing with a strong geometric twist endings.
Its design caisson type mnogolonzheronnaya. The wing consists mainly of heat-resistant aluminum alloys. Also, here we used the highly dimensional milled panel. Casing has a thickness 1,5 mm.
"Concord" was a special that was made not to separate from the fuselage and wing center section, and a set of cross-sections. One part of the wing meets the relevant part of the fuselage, then jointed sections to each other. This approach helps to alleviate the weight of the structure.
The texture of the wing consisted of six relatively large elevons, the total area of 32 m². Other wing mechanization options developers have not been considered. Vertical tail on the aircraft design is similar to the wing. Has a two-piece rudder independently driven lower and upper sections.
The structure of the power plant "Concorde" includes four Turbojet Olympus 593 joint production of Rolls-Royce and SNECMA, which are placed in pairs in underwing nacelles at a distance semispan wing panels. Location of engines made in consideration of matching the nozzle outlet at the rear edge of the wing.
Olympus 593 - is a highly modified version of the turbojet Bristol Siddeley Olympus 301, which was used on bombers Avro Vulcan. The motor-shaft, single-loop. In each of the two sections has a compression of 7 stages of the turbine engine - Single-stage.
The compressor has a compression ratio of 11,7: 1. This high compression at cruising speeds, forcing the last four stage of the compressor to operate in extreme temperature conditions. Because of this, the need has arisen for producing a compressor of nickel alloys, previously only used in turbines. The engine consumes jet fuel A1 brand.
For commercial aviation was the novelty of the use of automatic electronic analog control system engines. Each of the motors is equipped with two identical control systems: main and reserve.
Engines "Concord" differed from those used in other airplanes (except NGK-144A Tu-144) the presence of the afterburner. In the afterburner mode, there was a slight increase in thrust to 10%, which was used for take-off, break the sound barrier and set a cruising speed (M = 1,7). Cruise does not require the inclusion afterburner. This favorably displayed on the fuel economy and range, "Concord."
Each engine is packaged with a separate air inlet screen horizontal adjustable wedge and a rectangular cross section. The air intake system was equipped with a drain of the boundary layer and the complex kinematics of additional valves. During cruise mode (M = 2,0) air to penetrate into the air intakes, the brake system, created shock waves. There was about its speed M = 0,45, and at this time the pressure increased to 7 times. Comparing these data, it can be argued that the total pressure ratio compressor and air intake amounted to 80 1. Air inlets have hydraulic mechanization and electronic, automatic, analog control.
Engines equipped with reverse thrust system and adjustable nozzles. The system of reverse bucket will produce reverse thrust as a percentage of 40% of the nominal. Folds reverse systems act as adjustable injection nozzles secondary engines. The rear portion of each of the packets take vertical teploshumootrazhateli engines. They are equipped with winglets deflected inward. During take-off the end of an "collapsed" a jet engine exhaust, slightly suppresses noise. Also, the main engine nozzles each equipped with a set of 8 Spade noise suppressors. They were brought into operation during the span densely populated regions at subsonic speeds.
Adjustable engine nozzle, noise reduction and reversal are pneumatic mechanization electronically controlled.
For the sake of facilitating the take-off weight engineers "Concord" did not make heavier its auxiliary power unit. It was not necessary, because the aircraft operated on the well-prepared airfields with permanent access external electric and air supply.
Start pneumatic motors. On their land the launch took place from the ground source WSC, in-flight engine restarts by the selection of high-pressure air from the engines running.
Landing gear "Concord" tricycle with a nose strut. Since the take-off and landing of the car took place at high angles of attack, landing gear made an unusually large size - about 3,5 m in height. With this feature the doors were placed at approximately the same height as that of the large-sized "Boeing» 747. On the main landing gear was two pairs of wheels, placed one after the other and retracts into the fuselage turn. The front desk has a hydraulic rotation drive, allows to carry out machine control on the ground. It supports fixed chassis vodootrazhateli composite which prevent penetration of water into the engines air intake. Rack chassis equipped with hydraulic cleaning mechanisms, and for cleaning the chassis meets one main hydraulic system, and the release can also use a backup.
The plane "Concorde" is equipped with disc brakes with hydraulic from two mutually independent hydraulic systems. For the electronic brake control meets the analogue system with anti-lock function. "Concord" - the first airliner in the world, equipped with such a system.
The cooling of the brake discs in the main landing gear is provided by the fan, which are built into the wheel hubs.
To avoid mechanical damage during landing and take-off tail section equipped with an extra sloping rear rack chassis with two pneumatics. Cleaning the inside of the rack takes place by turning the fuselage compartment ago.
Aérospatiale - BAC Concorde features:
|A type||Of supersonic passenger aircraft|
|Number of passengers, pers.||seat pitch - 86 cm||125|
|seat pitch - 81 cm||144|
|Dimensions & Weight|
|Aircraft Length m||62,10 (62,74)|
|Height, m||11,40 (11,32)|
|Wing area, m2||358,25|
|Specific load on the wing (the maximum), kg / m2||517|
|interior length, m||39,3|
|The width of the cabin, m||2,64|
|Cabin height, m||1,95|
|Maximum take-off weight, kg||185 000 (181 400)|
|Maximum landing weight, kg||111130|
|Empty weight, kg||78698 (79300)|
|Load capacity, kg||12700 (11340)|
|number of engines||4|
|Engine||Turbojet «Olympus» 593Mk.602|
|Engine Thrust, kgf||cruising||4550|
|Fuel tank capacity, l||119786|
|Fuel consumption of the engine||l / h||28250|
|share, kg / kgf * h||1,19|
|The maximum weight ratio of the aircraft to the afterburner thrust, kg / daN||2,73|
|Flight distance, km||8845 kg with a load (M = 2,05 16 km at an altitude)||4500 (5110)|
|Blank (M = 2,02)||7500 (6580)|
|Maximum flight speed at height, km / h (M =)||2179 (2,04)|
|Cruising speed, km / h (M =)||at an altitude of 15600 km||2146 (2,02)|
|The take-off speed, km / h||324|
|Landing speed, km / h||300|
|Practical ceiling, m||19202|
|Cruising altitude, m||16764 - 18288|
|Takeoff distance, m||3410|
|Landing distance, m||2220|
- Aviation and literature
- A uniform
- Military aviation
- Civil Aviation
- Helpful information
- The calendar
- Aviation and music
- game air
- Plane Crash
- Aviation and cinema
- Educational establishments
- Author's articles
- Assemblies and units of air equipment
- The probability of catastrophes
- Online Timetable
- The calculation of the distance
Best in the world of aviation