Four-engine bomber was developed in 1946, the aircraft was not made. Powerplant: four turbo-jet engine TP-1 1300 kg of thrust.
In 1947 year was the start of a count of the existence of Soviet jet bomber aircraft. In June this year under the direction of V. Kokkinaki was hoisted into the air chetyrehdvigatelny bomber Il-22. This event was very important, given the fact that the aircraft was equipped with engines designed by domestic Cradles - TR-1. Reach indicators calculated thrust 1600 kgs them failed, the figure remained within 1300 kgs. Because of this limited take-off weight of the machine weighing tons instead 20 24 planned. Flight distance was only 865 km, flight time - half an hour. Flight speed at ground level was 656 km and at an altitude of - 718 km.
Takeoff aircraft IL-22 on takeoff was over 1,1 km, but for the first jet bomber were all the flaws are forgivable because of similar size unit was tested for the first time.
Nevertheless, the aircraft received good feedback from the test pilots. Based on the words Kokkinaki machine perfectly respond to commands. One of the outer engines yielded throttling, but it is easy to level by moving the rudder or helm. The aircraft has a large volume of the fuselage, but to put the car even in strong crosswinds easy. All you need to do - is to align the machine roll. IL-22 different good aerodynamic properties. The disadvantage of engine power planned to catch in future upgrades.
What was the purpose of bulky ILYUSHIN bomber? Experimental aircraft became the basis for the research problems of heavy jet aircraft, and on its basis formed a fundamentally new concept of production aircraft.
During the construction of the aircraft has been involved a lot. Especially it concerns the issue of placing the engines, the chassis and the circuit layout of the fuselage.
Having analyzed a number of options for placement of power plants on the plane, the creators came to the decision to create the IL-22 original layout engines. Jet engines of the aircraft placed in isolated pods on wing pylons, which are relatively wing leading edge were badly brought forward.
According to the last test of such an arrangement of jet engines it was aerodynamically efficient than that of their foreign counterparts of the time. It gave less drag than the batch layout. Plus, in the case of such an arrangement to the engines easier access for repair and maintenance.
The unusual layout and became the fuselage. The cross-section had a longitudinally-oval, which solved a lot of layout tasks. The large width of the fuselage allows you to put in a crew of five: two pilots, two gunners and navigator-bombardier. The entire fuel supply was located in three soft fuselage tanks.
In the front part of the fuselage were niches for cleaning the nose landing gear.
Compared with Western counterparts ILYUSHIN decided to equip Bomber defensive weaponry to complete the program. To do this, we invented a completely new approach to the construction layout of shooters and defensive weapons, given the remote control system. The sight and weapons were directed at the target scheme t. N. "Wheatstone bridge". Moving weapons anticipate and accommodate changes perspective.
The composition of defensive weapons included three mobile cannons B-20-E with ammunition for each 400 shells and one fixed on the NA-23 150 shells. Fire from the last gun could carry out through the ring sight crew commander.
In the second stage of factory tests aircraft checked for overclocking with two solid rocket launching SR-2. They hung symmetrically to the longitudinal axis of the fuselage on the left and right sides. The flight was made in 1948 running V.Kokkinaki pilot, and it was the first in the Soviet Union, the rise of a heavy bomber, the carrier rocket.
Nevertheless, studies for the establishment of this apparatus further used for the design of new models, including famous Sukhoi IL-28.
Bombardirvoschik IL-22 photo
The performance characteristics of the IL-22
Wingspan, m 23,06
Length m 21,05
Height, m 7,4
Wing area, m2 74,5
Empty weight, kg 14 950
Takeoff Weight, 24 000
flight speed, km / h 718
Flight range, km 865
The ceiling, 11 000 km
Gun x 2 23 mm, 2 20 mm x
bomb kg 2000
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