Aircraft Ilyushin Il-28
IL-28 is the first Soviet jet bomber. It codified as "Beagle" in NATO. Also, IL-28 is frontline bombers, capable of carrying tactical nuclear weapons.
In the middle of 50-ies presents the main striking force of Aviation of the USSR. The difference was in the plane of its reliability and simplicity in operation. It is for this plane S. Ilyushin and his team was awarded the Stalin Prize.
History of the IL-28
At its own initiative and 28-created in competition with the Tupolev Design Bureau. In June 48 year government issued a decree about designing a bomber with turbojet-powered. Experienced flight sample was realized in early July 48 years with engines "Ning" of the British production company "Rolls Royce".
On state tests in February 1949 28, the IL-hit since domestic production of engines VC-1 (RD-45F). The Research Institute of the Air Force for the time spent flying 84, 80 found structural defects. In the four months to correct them.
In May 1949, at a meeting at the Stalin decided to take IL-28 bomber by the Air Force. Exactly one year later there was a public display of the aircraft. Also began his serial construction. It launched in Moscow, Omsk and Voronezh on №30 plants, and №166 №64 respectively. A little later, we began building and factories and №18 №1. In the same year 50 built a training version of the Il-28U. In 51 was designed Il-28T - torpedo. Three years later the Air Force of the country took a reconnaissance modification of IL-28R. Total stories aircraft fired about 6000 copies.
The design of the air car
The most common material that is used in the aircraft - D16T duralumin (an aluminum alloy). The fuselage was typed according to the custom of the stringers and frames. Cabin crew are fully soundproofed and sealed. Direct, one-piece trapezoidal wing, two-spar. It has the installation angle of three degrees with a transverse V 38. Wing profiled (CP 5S) with 12% in thickness. Established conventional flaps. The ailerons are used as roll control. Stabilizer and fin swept, and their profile is symmetrical NACA-00. Trimmer ailerons and rudder direction is controlled electrically, PB trimmer - mechanically (gear mechanisms and cable runs).
The engines installed in nacelles under the wings. They controlled cable runs. With the help of an electric starter motor is carried out every promotion. Total capacity of fuel tanks - 7908 l. They are made of soft rubber.
Chassis tricycle, suspension air-oil. Spirtoglitserinovuyu mixture of IL-660 used as a hydraulic fluid for shock absorbers. Main landing gear retracted forward into the nacelle, front - back into the fuselage. cleaning and landing gear is operated hydraulically.
The entire hydraulic system is used to drive the wheels and brakes the drive flap. On the left engine hydraulic pump installed. The working fluid - oil IMP (45 L). With pneumatic open bomb bay leaf. In contrast to the hydraulic system, air system is distributed by pumps on both engines.
power sources for bomber GSR are 2-9000 and 2 12 battery-A-30. The structure of the radio equipment installed on the aircraft radar PSBN-H radio altimeter RV and RV-2-10, 5-ARC finder, radio RSIU-ZM, intercom device SPU-5 and radars SRO.
The composition of instrumentation includes giropolukompas GIC-46, compass KI-11, attitude indicator AGK-47B, navigation sight AB-52, DGMK-3 - gyromagnetic compass, watch Achkhoy and ATS-M, the rotary pointer UP-2, altimeter VD-17 , a numeric index MA-0,95, autopilot AP-5 and 1200-pointer ASC speed.
In the modified IL-28 in an "intelligence" installed photographic equipment: a perspective for the shooting - AFA-75MK, AFA-33 and AFA-BA-40, for night - NAFA-31 / 25, and Nathan-31 / 50, photographic bomb FOTAB- 50-35 / 100-60, flares SAB-100-55 / 1000-35. On the radar screen was fixed prefix PSBN information FRL-1M. After some time PSBN radar replaced by radar "Kurs". Additionally, in the scout equipment included chaff by ASO-28 and equipment type noise "Sodium".
From a wide range of bombs IL-28 often used FAB-100 (12 units) or FAB-250M46 (8 units). In some embodiments, considered FAB 500M46 in the amount of two units or one-FAB 1500M46. IL-28T (torpedo) arming a reactive torpedo PAT-52 or 500-mines AMD, the AMD-1000 of the type "Desna" or "Lira". IL-28T used PTN-45 sight. For small arms carried 2 23 HP-gun type of stationary and mobile 2 IL-K6. The latter had a hydraulic drive.
Aircraft serving in the Air Force or Navy of the USSR, painted silverfish, those sent for export - a different color camouflage.
It operates the aircraft in many countries, particularly in China, Egypt, Romania, Algeria, Finland, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Afghanistan, North Korea, Vietnam, Yemen, Cuba, Morocco, Somalia, Indonesia, Nigeria and Syria.
By the end of 50-ies of the aircraft began to shoot with weapons and replace it with the Yak-28.
IL-28 - tactical bomber.
IL-28A modified by RDS-4 nuclear bomb.
IL-28T was used as a torpedo bomber, but for service and was not accepted.
IL-28PL - ASW modification.
IL-28R - scout.
IL-28REB - modified for electronic warfare.
IL-28RTR held radio intelligence.
IL-28U used for educational training.
IL-28SH - attack experienced.
IL-28S - aircraft experienced. Swept wing, engine VC-5.
IL-28LL designed as a flying laboratory.
IL-28ZA probed the atmosphere.
IL-28M - unmanned radio-controlled target drone.
IL-28P - mail plane.
IL-28 crawler chassis - experimental aircraft.
IL-28 - towing targets.
In the middle of 40-ies of the last century, the first turbojet engine was developed in the USSR. It became the basis for the construction of bomber IL-22, Which was supposed to be a test model of a brand new, the first in the history of Soviet turbojet bomber. But tests legend predecessor failed, because a huge number of defects were found. However, this has not led to despair of aircraft, on the contrary! They have considered this and got what we wanted - a great experience.
Several years of project development, a huge number of options, mistakes and discoveries - all this led to the fact that in 1948, the team of aircraft manufacturers IL-28 bomber was created. General Designer of Ilyushin began. One of the main advantages of the bomber was the fact that his engines were not native, and English, the brand "Rawls Royce." Despite the fact that the development and construction took a lot of time, and it seemed that everything was perfect, after the first flight about 80 defects were found.
The IL-28. A photo.
But even that is not the reason for stopping the project. The defects were eliminated and have the serial construction was started by 4 months. IL-28 3 crew consisted of people-oh. Engines have already been used domestic made the example of the English: turbojet VC-1, the general thrust of which was 5400 kg. Maximum take-off weight was equal to 23200 kg. Clocked bomber to 906 km / h. Service ceiling was equal to 12400 meters. Flight range was 2400 km. A armament consisted of aircraft 4 23 HP-caliber guns 23 mm and a total weight of various bombs 3000 kg. These characteristics, as well as the fact that the aircraft was fairly easy to manufacture, compared to other models, has led to the fact that its production 3 entire plant engaged.
The IL-28. Characteristics.
|Year of adopting||1958|
|Years of production||1957 - 1959|
|Empty weight, kg||10 500|
|Mass of payload kg||4000|
|Built-gun||4 × 30 mm (DEFA)|
|Max. takeoff weight, kg||20 800|
|Power point||2 × SNECMA Atar 101EZ|
|Maximum thrust, kN||× 2 34,3|
|Max. speed km / h||950|
|Scient. Range (without PTB), km||5400|
|Practical ceiling, m||15 000|
Thanks to the experience of World War II, aircraft designers were able to put the crew so as to ensure safety, both them and himself bomber. the remote control has been introduced, as well as autopilot. This is required in order to pilot was only one plane which reduced dimensions as compared to IL-22. upgraded navigation equipment was installed also on the plane.
The IL-28. Video.
All this has led to the fact that IL-28 has become one of the most famous, powerful and beloved military bomber. In his example, a huge number of airplanes, many missiles tested was built, bombs and other projectiles. This bomber was a truly legendary and left the greatest mark in the history of aviation of the USSR.
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