IL-10 - Soviet ground-attack aircraft, released under the final stage of World War II. The development of military aircraft engaged in CB Ilyushin. IL-10 - is a deeply modernized domestic IL-2, Released in 1944 was first raised in the air 18.04.1944 test pilot VK Kokkinaki During serial production, which began in the same 1944-m, it was made 4475 military Il-10 and 280-10 training Weale. For 1945 year produced more than 2,5 thousand. These stormtroopers. Such haste was dictated by the need to produce a powerful reinforcement of the army air force after the transition of Soviet troops in the offensive.
Since 1952 1955 of and production of IL-10 moved to Czechoslovakia in Sokovitse. There he was called in-33. Czech exports was led attack aircraft to Hungary, flattered, Bulgaria and Romania. On In-33 from 4 weapons were installed HC-23RM guns with ammunition - 150 shells. All in all the territory of the Czechoslovak issued over 1200 Stormtroopers In-33.
History of the IL-10
Because IL-2 successfully established itself during the Second World War, he had the idea of modernization in a more powerful auxiliary fighter. Initially designing refers to the two main lines. The first question concerned the protection and strengthening properties bomber aircraft (heavy attack aircraft IL-8). But due to the tightened test aircraft in the series and missed. The second line touches a sharp improvement in the flight data with the same type of IL-2, armored protection and small arms. That IL-10 has become such a plane. He had fewer dimensions, improved aerodynamics and the engine is liquid cooled the AM-42.
IL-2 was a good fighter, but he is much inferior to the German air force and air defense forces. Armament also left much to be desired. Guns QI-23 and ShVAK were already ineffective against fascist armor.
By the fall of 43, the Air Force leadership to clarify that the delay with the decision of designing a new armored fighter is impossible. He just did was necessary for the summer offensive campaign 1944 years.
The new aircraft under the plan was more maneuverable and efficient. Wing IL-10 compared with the base model was thinner and had a number of different configurations. It was supplied with the Embarkation-takeoff flaps in an "Schrenk" and ailerons "Fries". Cleaning chassis similar to the Su-6, also removed in the central part of mezhlonzheronnoe space. At the same time the wheels turn at 86 degrees. With this drag and dropped midsection. Also during the flight reduction of air resistance contributed to seal all holes and gaps. additional partitions inside the fuselage were installed to create separate compartments. As a result of the work drag IL-10 almost two less than the baseline IL-2.
For the protection of aircraft and combat survivability meet established hulls. They protect the main fighter units: powerplant, fuel and oil tanks with their trunks. Protection arrow and provide the pilot shielded armor plates installed in the rear hemisphere. These include bronestenka, armored bulkhead and headrest pilot. Armor plate consisting of two to eight millimeter bronelistov air gap. They are much more effective protection against the German 20-mm shells. The side plates protecting the gunner and the pilot were in 6 mm thick, while the bottom side - 5 mm. Top pilot covered the armor thickness 6 mm. Units of water and oil cooler covered 10-mm armor.
An additional positive effect on the survivability of the aircraft was carried out through the use of engineered fuel tanks and high-strength rods in the mechanism of the elevator control.
Designing a new aircraft fully relied on had experience with the operation of the IL-2. In IL-established 10 4 20 mm caliber cannon (later they were replaced by 23 mm). On the wing of the beam delivered eight RS-82 (rockets). Internal and external bombolyuk suspension were used as weapons with different-sized bombs weighing up to 600 kg.
Total empty weight of the aircraft is 4680 kg, the fully armed to two tons heavier. Subsequent upgrading related primarily to improve the firepower of the aircraft. Also, designers of OKB designed a training version of Wil-10. Combat modification machine 1951 year was Il-10M.
The first prototype flight in an airplane made B. Kokkinaki April 18 1944 years. In the factory test took less than a month, they ended May 13. A state tests were conducted at all in the short term - 2 weeks. Haste was initiated urgent need at the front of the aircraft.
According to the results of all the tests it turned out that the plane did not only meet the necessary parameters, but also surpassed them. Maximum horizontal IL-10 rate was higher than that taken as a basis Il-2, 150 to km / h. At an altitude of up to 2000 m air machine is largely inferior to the German single-seat fighter.
Before the first of May 1945 630, the army handed the Il-10. He was on the Air Force to 60-ies. It could only change the jets.
The plane barely had time to make sorties against German fighters, only in April 45 15 years could make war IL-10. They were used in the Far East against the Kwantung Army in August. The widespread use of the aircraft belonged to the period of the Korean War. BBC North Korea received IL-93 10, however, due to limited experience of Korean pilots in two months have less than twenty cars.
Advantages of IL-10
Compared with its predecessor, the IL-2-10 IL characteristics were much better. This has been achieved by better bypass hulls, use of improved landing gear design, the construction of high-speed sections of the wings and airframe, sealing all compartments of the aircraft. As a result, the new device has exceeded the IL-2 150 as much km / h at the maximum speed at 2300 m For this indicator, the domestic flight back to back close to its German rivals -. Fighter Bf.109.
On the basis of the use of IL-2 in combat in a new attack aircraft was radically redesigned armor. During the war, armored cab IL-10 was able to protect the crew against the penetration of 20-millimeter shells of the German guns. Armed with an arsenal was the same as in past versions of IL-2. In the early 1945, the first copies of the new assault aircraft displayed on the front of the IL-10, where they are immediately able to win the recognition of the pilots. Weight with bomb-missile weapons - 400 kg. It can be increased to a peak 600 kg.
Based on the increased agility and speed settings, IL-10 can be used not only as an attack aircraft, but also to short-range air combat with enemy aircraft. All these advantages have allowed significantly reduce the casualties of the Soviet Union aircraft during the Second World War. By the end of World War II in the USSR Armed Forces was the Il-120 10. A total of about 4600 produced aircraft of this class.
Design and modifications
IL-10- A double-metal monoplane. In contrast, IL-2, proceeding from statistics of destruction of aircraft, armored compartment fully placed cab air arrow. Exactly twice as compared with the base model have increased the thickness of armor - with up to 4 8 mm. Also caliber weapons has been increased from 12,7 20 mm mm.
In 1951, after getting combat experience in the Korean War, the Soviet leadership had decided to resume the production of improved modified IL-10, which was calledIL-10M. First flew IL-managed 10M 2.07.1951.
In contrast to the base model, the IL-10M was a little more along the length of the fuselage and wingspan. Also in the tail of IL-10M clearly distinguished keel wing thickness has been reduced for the sake of improving the performance of the aircraft. The changes were made and the interior: increased area of the control surface.
The armor coating similar to IL-10, the armored body of the car was made of steel armor plates 4-8 mm thick. In the IL-10M used bulletproof 64 mm thick. Of the weapons were placed under the wings of the new gun H-23. Also completely replaced by navigational equipment. Payload weight remained unchanged. The avionics IL-10 M equipment for blind landing were added giropolukompas, radio compass, altimeter, which allowed to take off at any time and in any weather.
Modifications of IL-10M 146 pieces were produced. Serial production was completed in January 1955, and since 1956, the attack was removed from service due to the preference of using fighter-bombers.
The plane was a training session for the preparation of unit-attack aircraft pilots. The first tests have been passed in the middle of the year 1945. Unlike full IL-10, in the educational version cubicle arrow it was converted into a cabin and instructor pilot, which housed the board with a turn indicator, speed, altimeter, compass and artificial horizon. They were removed from the plane: armored bulkhead between pilot and gunner, cassette aviagranat, starters jet rockets, machine gun UBT. lantern hinged lid replaced by sliding back on the runners. Another difference was the placement instructor: in IL-10U he was facing in the direction of flight.
If we compare the performance characteristics, the IL-10U no way inferior to comrades, but the view from the cockpit especially during landing was less than that of a full-fledged attack aircraft. Given the huge number of issued IL-10, there is an urgent need to establish a training aircraft prototype. Therefore, IL-10U began to mass-produce, and all descended from the conveyor 280 of training models.
Czechoslovakia received a license to attack aircraft production and the start of their produce under the name Avia In-33. Serial production was carried out by 1952 1956 During this time it was released over 1200 copies of analog IL-10, among which about fifty educational models, called CB-33. Czech version of the aircraft supplied the Warsaw Pact countries: Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Hungary. By design, these planes are in no way different from the Soviet Il-10 and their modifications.
Use in the course of hostilities
The first military flight of IL-10 15.04.1945 made. The battle took part 15 attack aircraft, command of the operation was entrusted MI Earless. In 1945 it was used during the battles against the Kwantung Army in the Far East.
During the Korean War, actively carry out combat missions for the North Korean side. After 2 months after the invasion of South Korean troops from 93 stormtroopers were only combat-ready units 20. IL-11 10 North Korean Air Force aircraft were shot down by the UN. Two more combat aircraft were intercepted and handed over to the US for flight tests.
The first models of IL-painted 10 2 similarly IL-large spots of light brown, black and green colors. However 6.10.1944 was given an indication of paint assault planes in only camouflage, which consisted of dark gray stripes on a light gray background. Prior to that, such coloring had only fighters. Gray became constant, even in the winter painting white abolished.
Since 1945, the factory producing airplanes, it was necessary to move fully to the new paint system, and has already released copies were allowed to operate without repainting.
Therefore, at the final stage of the war against the German invaders in the sky at the front can be seen, and the gray and spotted the Il-10.
After the war, again revised livery combat aircraft and returned to the old pre-war standards. According to post-war changes all military aircraft painted on top of a dark green color. This color scheme has received the majority of IL-10, produced in the USSR in 1946-1948 years., And in all Czech-33. unmarked location has not changed. As in the time of war, they were placed on the bottom of the wings, the tail and on the sides of the fuselage.
Board number applied white paint on the fuselage near the stars. In wartime divisions and regiments were labeled his technique additional color marks the rapid identification of: rings, stripes, stars on the wings and fuselage. Often IL-10 drawn icons awards, which were assigned to the crew of the aircraft, and the Guards machines on the wings was placed special signs "Guards". All this by the end of 40-ies was prohibited due to the increase in the military sphere of privacy of the USSR and its entry into the phase of the Cold War. On airplanes were only the stars and numbers.
|Wing area, m2||30.00|
|engine's type||1 PD Mikulin AM-42|
|flight||X 1 1750|
|takeoff||X 1 2000|
|Maximum speed km / h|
|near the ground||507|
|Cruising speed, km / h||436|
|Practical range, km||800|
|Rate of climb, m / min||625|
|Practical ceiling, m||7250|
|Armament:||two 23-mm cannon load cells or NA-23-23 (mounted on the wing) and two 7.62-mm machine gun ShKAS|
|one 20-mm gun UB-20 or 12.7 UBS machine gun with the rear|
|to RS-8 82-132 or PC|
|bomb load - normal version - 400 kg (FAB-2 100 in the bomb bay and FAB-2 100 on external sling); Reloading - 600 kg (FAB-2 50 2 in the compartments and FAB-250 on external sling)|
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