IL-Sturmovik 2. A photo. Video. History.
IL-2 (attack) - is a war machine of World War II, which is very well known for its feats of arms in the destruction of the enemy. The designer of the machine is Sergei Ilyushin, who developed this model with 1938 years. This aircraft model is often called the flying tank, because he had an excellent armor that was too tough for the enemy.
Description IL-2 (attack)
IL-2 was the most famous fighting unit skies during World War II, both among our people, and among enemy troops. At the time, none of the world army had even pathetic semblance of the stormtrooper. He was specialized for flying at low altitudes and thus had invulnerable armored shell. Its main task was to destroy the enemy's manpower and tanks.
In our country in the early 30-ies began active development of ground-attack aircraft with armored fuselage. The forerunners of the IL-2 were heavy armored attack aircraft, which are known under the name TS-1,2 and 3. The main task of the designers was the manufacture of armor that would not be able to break the aerodynamic properties of the aircraft.
The first models of TS were bent armor pieces that were not enough are smooth and, as a result, this has led to a deterioration in the properties of flying the aircraft, and at the same time they had a lot of weight. Also, the first models of this attack aircraft engines used by low-power, which led to a low speed and great acceleration at take-off. The solution was the installation of more powerful engines and the use of the new model of armor, which was biconvex. These modifications allowed in the late thirties to make a real and qualitative-attack aircraft under the name of Il-2.
The predecessor of the first IL-2 was SB armored attack-2, which had two seats in the cockpit for the pilot and gunner. SB-2 was also designed Ilyushin Design Bureau in the year 1938, the aircraft was equipped with a sheet armor. This kind of armor was used in the aircraft IL-2. It should be noted that the first models were made with wooden IL's body parts, fuselage it was Shell wing and tail wing.
Design features of the Il-2
The chassis in this folded back attack aircraft, and then retracted into the wing body and then closing fairing for improved aerodynamics. As for weapons, the designers came here quite deliberately. Onboard weapons were found in the inner part of the wing and guiding devices for rockets were installed under the wing attack aircraft. Because of armor and mounted engine AM-35 2 IL-developed low speed, just until 400 km / h and landing speed was 140 km / h.
When tested SB-2 aircraft designers have decided that you need to produce a new attack in a single embodiment, to reduce the weight of the aircraft. Thereafter, single-attack aircraft was built, which has shown excellent flight and combat characteristics. This was the first IL-2 - attack with armored fuselage. In 1941 was given model aircraft launched into production at many factories.
Its quality and reliability IL-2 shown in the first years of the war, but there were drawbacks. The biggest flaw was the lack of machine gunner, which could reflect the attack of enemy aircraft with the tail. This shortcoming has led to large losses. An interesting fact is that the title of Hero of the Soviet Union appropriated pilots after ten successful sorties, not after 100, as usual.
Innovations in design IL-2 (attack)
In the first months of the year 1942 Ilyushin Design Bureau held a conference to which were invited testers and pilots who directly were related to the new attack aircraft. This conference was gathered to share experiences and to find out the behavior of the aircraft in combat. When communicating with pilots, it became clear that the main problem and the lack of an aircraft is no second place in the machine gunner. Also pay attention to the designers to enhance engine power and an increase in the caliber of the gun.
Following the conference, the designers still come back to the initial two-seat attack aircraft model. Also, the machine gunner was provided by mobile heavy machine gun, which will help to protect the aircraft from the enemy from the rear and will increase the range firepower. Since IL-year 1942 2 began to produce a more powerful engine in 1720 horsepower. It is possible to increase the speed of the aircraft to 420 km / h and acceleration significantly reduced the length of the tear, and it is all at a weight of more than 6 tonnes in full combat configuration.
As for the four 20-millimeter machine guns, their designers have also been replaced with large-caliber guns. This attack is also equipped with anti-tank bombs cumulative. But with all the innovations and upgrades wings console is still made from wood, but only 1943, their design and the materials used have been replaced by more effective.
Due to the addition of the Heavy places had to change the design of all hulls, and was modified fuselage tail of the aircraft. After all the adjustments mass attack aircraft hulls reached 990 kg. All components have been tested hulls shooting. IL-2 were also used during the naval battles to destroy the ship and on land it is easily destroyed tanks and truck convoys of the enemy. This attack was used on the front and with the support of our troops in the near rear.
Due to the strong armor and weapons other than this model of attack aircraft called flying tank. For all time of existence of the Soviet Union aircraft plants were produced over 36 thousand armored stormtroopers. Such a huge number of combat vehicles that can really compete for leadership with only the legendary tank T-34.
Combat application legendary stormtrooper
According to official data of the Red Army to the front 1941 years 1,5 sent thousands of planes, Il-2 from 1,1 which lost thousands, but most of the losses were not related to combat missions. Many military units were lost due to unsuccessful maneuvers at low altitudes or due to poor weather conditions.
For all the Great Patriotic War, our army has lost more than 23 thousand aircraft, attack aircraft and more than 7,8 thousand pilots. It should be noted that 12 thousand aircraft was lost not on the battlefield. As for Ihlow, the statistics says that every 53-second flight was the last one for attack aircraft. As for survival, it should be noted that among all types of combat aircraft gunships killed most of all, despite the fact that they had an excellent armor and powerful weapons.
The reason for big losses Ihlow was combat tactics as they flew at low altitude and attracted all the fire of the enemy artillery. According to the number of assault units nonreturn Ihlow was 3%. But it should be taken into account and the fact that after half of all combat missions returning aircraft had damage from enemy weapons. Sometimes returning-attack aircraft could count several hundred holes in the fuselage and wings, but after a field repair this car could easily get back into the fight. At the end of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union army was in service units IL-3289 2 aircraft.
Tactics combat attack aircraft IL-2
The main advantage of such an attack aircraft in combat was that he was working at heights of up to 1 km, and the main combat operations he carried out at the height of 20-50 meters. Because of the low altitude flight Ilu was not afraid of enemy artillery and infantry on the plane easily defended his armor. In turn, the attack would effectively destroy tanks and manpower. At low altitudes, plus was also quite high speed jet to 400km / hour, which could not afford the other attack aircraft that could be dispersed only to three hundred kilometers per hour.
After the destruction of ground targets IL-2 could easily go for an attack on enemy air targets, which, although they had a great rate, but did not have such weapons and armor, as a Soviet attack. An interesting fact is the trick of our pilots, who used external similarity Ila German bomber. Our pilots could be attached to the German aircraft, which suspected nothing, and quietly destroy them.
Construction of IL-2
IL-2 is a single-nizkoplan, different mix designs. His feature - in the power circuit includes airframe armor. It replaced the trim middle and forward fuselage and frame. The carrier consists of a hull of a homogenous steel armor, he closed the cockpit, engine, some units and radiators (hull of a prototype defended bortstrelka). The thickness of the transparent armor cockpit canopy - 64 mm. It is able to withstand armor-piercing bullet 7,62 mm with zero distance.
There is a misconception that IL-2 was originally a two-seater, but on the orders of the military leadership had to redo Ilyushin attack in Single. Due to the lack of defensive armament of the aircraft they had big losses at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War.
In fact, the aircraft was originally booked a double, but at the initiative of the Ilyushin, he transformed into a double. The reason for this was poor flying qualities (climbing ability, speed and range), because they do not meet the requirements presented by the Air Force. At the same time over the armored Il-2 worked and other designers. In order to save his creation in a competitive environment, Ilyushin developed his monadic version. He managed to reduce the volume of hulls, by removing bortstrelka. In its place was an extra fuel tank and found the back of book centering on the weight that should cause complaints, as it seriously affects the handling of the machine.
Due to the economic weight of the attack meets the legal requirements for speed, and with the installation of additional tank was able to achieve the required range.
Faced with a severe loss of IL-2 without defensive weapons, the Air Force asked the Ilyushin aircraft back to do double that, in fact, been implemented at the end of 1942 hull of change, but does not work, so had to endure is bortstrelka hulls. His defense - six-millimeter sheet of armor, who is from the tail. The pilot protection to rear hemisphere is provided by transverse armor CD, which has a thickness in 12 mm (plus 6 bronespinka mm).
It is worth noting that the hull of which protected both crew members received only late modification of aircraft, namely, IL-10Which began mass-produced in 1944 year.
· Two guns in the wing panel (basic version - 23 mm load cell, initially - 20 mm ShVAK in anti series - 37 mm) were investigated 45 mm cannon
· Two gun ShKAS placed on the wings of an airplane
· Containers PTAB, bombs
· Missiles RS and RS-132-82
· In cases double as a defensive armament used gun UTB 12,7 mm.
Modifications of IL-2
Produced in both single and double versions. Various structural and technological changes have been made regularly. For example, in the end, the used 1941 aft wooden structure with metal stringers. Changed weapons reservation.
· Il-2 (single) is a production series of attack aircraft, which has no cabin for the rear gunner. In some parts due to large military losses attempts to convert the single-seater in the double. In many cases, created by simulating the back of the gun - a fake, installed in slot booths.
· Il-2 (double) was a production version, which was equipped with machine guns and ShKAS collar and hand shower with a lantern. Massively exploited in the late period of the war.
· Il-2 AM 38F - serial attack with uprated engines, characterized by high take-off power.
· Il-2 KSS - production version of the IL-2 AM 38F with exactly the same engine, but a forced, with some structural and aerodynamic improvements. Instead of a metal tank used fiber protected fuel tanks, where after a while the majority of small holes dragged composition projector that could thicken outdoors. To improve the management and sustainability of the aircraft was established in kontrbalansir and amortization spring.
· Il-4 (M IL-2-82) - prototype version of the attack aircraft, which had the engine M-82 with good takeoff power, namely 1675 hp
· Il-2 SHFK-37 - Single version of Assault, armed with two aircraft guns 37 mm design OKB-15, with engine AM-38.
· Il-2-37 NA is a modification of the IL-2 AM 38F. The aircraft guns were installed 37 mm, without missiles to enhance anti properties.
· Il-2 NA-45 - modification of the IL-2 AM 38f having two guns NS-45.
· Il-2T - according to unofficial data modification was capable of carrying torpedoes, leaving the guns had to be sacrificed. Among small arms remained three machine guns: the rear gunner and two wing. But the documents that would confirm the existence of this modification, were not found to this day, although there are numerous model aircraft (in addition, this modification is often used in video games).
IL-2, along with the tank T-34 and "Katyusha", became one of the symbols of the Great Patriotic War and the victory in it. And for what reason did this happen? Why IL-2? We will try to understand. First of all, IL-2 turned extremely effective fighting unit - namely, attack aircraft. Attack aircraft also has another name - the aircraft in direct support of the troops, which explains its combat mission.
That is, if the tactical bombers (like Pe-2) are intended to objects of different values and distance from the front, strategic aviation (eg Pe-8) - attack strategic facilities of the country in the depths of its territory, the IL-2 should participate to attack ground troops to support them, literally "iron" battle formations of the enemy in battle, before the battle and its aftermath. In fact, it is a flying artillery. The requirements for aircraft of this class is quite peculiar. The main ones are: high firepower, the ability to spot destroy ground targets and increased survivability of the aircraft. IL-2 possessed all these qualities, so he became a legend that the appearance on the battlefield caused a sharp rise in morale among soldiers and panic among the German soldiers.
Now, in order. It should be noted that IL-2 was actually the first aircraft, which was designed specifically as an attack, before all over the world this role fighters, which weighed a ton of weapons and armor plates. Red Army at the start of work on the IL-2 military doctrine was similar to the German - fast attack, destroy and capture. For this doctrine of aircraft grade Il-2 on the series, with the fighters, they were in demand the most. Therefore, the development of new aircraft treated more than serious, and even developed a new aircraft gun specifically for IL-2 - QI-23.
It was she, being set in the amount of two units, mostly led combat effectiveness "Elah", as it was precise and powerful tool suitable for the destruction of all up to the medium tanks and boats. In addition, armed with machine guns had a couple ShKAS, at a phenomenal rate of that time in 1800 rounds / minute, which simply mows the personnel of the opponent's pieces. Additionally, "IL" armed with another relatively "fresh" invention - rocket, in an amount of up to 4 16 pieces that had the name of the PC or PC-82-132 (missile caliber in millimeters). The weapon was less accurate than the gun, but more accurate than the bomb, so it took an intermediate position between them.
Well, and also had the opportunity to bomb-caliber 250kg, which further increases the combat effectiveness of the aircraft. Accordingly, IL-2 had a very impressive and varied, and from this a very effective arsenal that fully ensures point defeat individual goals.
Now survivability. The persistence of the aircraft - a parameter that determines the stability of the aircraft to hit. Simply put, the number of enemy lead, which is able to swallow the plane and continue the flight. To attack aircraft is an important parameter, because it flies low over the battlefield, at low speeds, and traditionally it shoots at everything that can shoot. IL-2- the world's first airplane, which had a bearing hull of protecting the pilot and the engine until it bronelisty just hang on a plane in some places.
This design benefits significantly in weight, as compared with simply hanging the steel and thus increases the amount of armor without deterioration of flight characteristics of the aircraft. IL-2 had armor amenable Hit a caliber armor-piercing shells from 20mm above. But do not assume that the machine-gun fire to knock it was impossible, because the wings and tail of the machine did not have a reservation and were made of wood. Nevertheless, the persistence of IL-2 was very high, and even more increased due to high flight characteristics, in terms of which it is a little inferior to German Bf-109E.
Not for nothing because in the German ground units IL-2 has received such nicknames as "Butcher" or "flying tank", the nickname was well deserved.
IL-2 Sturmovik main characteristics:
- Modification of IL-2
- Wingspan, m 14.60
- Length m 11.60
- Height, m 4.17
- Wing area, m2 38.50
- empty aircraft 4525
- normal takeoff 6060
- Mikulin AM AP 1-38
- x rated 1 1575
- vzlenaya 1 1665 x
The maximum speed, km / h
- at ground 370
- at an altitude of 411
Practical range, km 685
- Rate of climb, m / min 417
- Practical ceiling, m 6000
- Crew 2
Armament IL-2 Sturmovik:
- Two 20-mm cannon ShVAK (on 210 shells on the trunk)
- Two 7.62-mm machine gun ShKAS (750 on ammo machine gun)
- One 12.7-mm drill collars to fire back (280 cartridges)
- PO 8-82 and 400 kg bombs (overload in 600 kg).
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