Helicopter Yakovlev Yak-24
The helicopter Yak-24 designed for extremely short time: from the beginning of the preparation of conceptual design (October 1951 g) until the first lift in the air (July 1952 g) passed 9 months. This is despite the fact that a similar design for his "Piasecki H-16» built entire 7 years 1946 from 1953 on year.
In the USSR, the experimental work on the creation helicopters were from the beginning of 30-ies. original models of helicopters were created by different design teams. They made test flights, in some cases demonstrating good characteristics, but in general have been very imperfect and unsuitable for practical use. By the early 50-x backlog of the USSR from other countries in the area of the helicopter did not suit the country's leadership. The situation is aggravated by the fact that the US and NATO countries have made extensive use of helicopters for military purposes. During the war on the Korean peninsula were used standing on the American army has helicopters. Helicopters, sitting on small plots of land and take off from them, hovering in the air, in the designs of the military had to compensate for the inherent deficiencies of aircraft.
Stalin, having learned about the widespread use of helicopters potential enemy armies, appealed to leading aircraft manufacturers. During the debate on the construction assignment we received two design bureaus: Mil and Yakovlev.
The device at the stage of design, development and manufacturing has changed several names. Last sounded like "product W". For this experimental device designers chose the original twin screw coaxial scheme. Experience in the design of such machines as no one had. Developed the theory of mechanics coaxial screw did not even exist. Everything had to start from scratch. The design of the helicopter repeatedly processed. The tail assembly is set, then shot. After two years without achieving significant results, we turned to the project.
In February 1948 years begun to establish helicopter Yak-100. It was made according to the classic single-rotor scheme. Through the year 2 the machine has successfully passed the state tests. However, serial production was launched Mi-1 KB M. Mile, showed higher performance characteristics. After a meeting in the Kremlin 24.09.1951 Yakovlev Design Bureau started work on transport and assault helicopters unique to that time flight data and load capacity of 4 tons.
Designers abandoned the classical scheme and design steel unit with two longitudinally extending along the fuselage axis rotors. These machines primarily in the Soviet Union did not build and do not even develop experimental samples. The project received the designation Yak-24. After weeks 2, 5.10.195, issued a decree of the Council of Ministers, where Mil is also instructed to create a single-rotor Mi-4. The government required that the main components and assemblies of new helicopter: rotors, engines, gearboxes, control system - were interchangeable or identical.
The development was carried out on the basis of broad cooperation with the involvement of several research organizations, including the Central hydrodynamic Institute Zhukovsky, Central Institute of Aviation Materials and All-Union Institute of Aeronautical Engineering. The development of the basic units and their arrangement on both equipment design bureau conducted jointly. Good coordination will complete the design work as soon as possible.
3.07.1952, the first ten-minute test flight. Pilots noted increased vibration performance and a vertical "shaking." The consequence of this was the discovery of defects in design strength - any cracks and destruction of individual components. After shortening the rotor on 500 mm, "shaking" as such was not observed. Yak-24 became the first in the Soviet Union twin-screw helicopter, which was the basis of the longitudinal layout of the screws. And in the period of 1953-1957 years - the largest machine in its class in the world. He had the world's highest performance engines and payload capacity.
The high performance characteristics of the Yak-24 1955 confirmed in December, when it established the world records 2 duty. The behavior of the machine in flight was sustained, the engine runs reliably. According to the technique of piloting the Yak-24 appeared available to any pilot of average skill. In 1955, the helicopter took the Soviet Air Force. It could put military equipment and 19 paratroopers with full equipment. Also, a helicopter was used in the national economy.
The Yak-year 1959 24 helicopters took part in the large-scale exercises of the member countries of the Warsaw Pact in the Kiev region and on the territory of the GDR. During the exercise, the Yak-24 helicopters carried out flights on the route Moscow - Berlin and Moscow - Kyiv.
In addition to the military, there were civilian modification of the helicopter "flying crane", "comfortable passenger liner". Altogether during the series production it was released about a hundred vehicles of this type. In the decade of operation the helicopter had not been subjected to the loss of life wrecks.
|Diameter of the main rotor, m||X 2 20.2|
|engine's type||2 PD Shvetsov Ash-82V|
|power, kWt||X 2 1268|
|Maximum speed km / h||173|
|Cruising speed, km / h||150|
|Ferry range, km||1300|
|Practical range, km||650|
|Range with maximum load, km||255|
|Practical ceiling, m||5000|
|Static ceiling, m||2700|
|Payload:||30 18 soldiers or stretcher or 4000 kg of cargo|
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