Tu-154. A photo. Video. Driving compartment. Characteristics. Reviews
The Tu-154 was developed in the sixties in the Soviet Union Design Bureau Tupolev.
Tu-154 - trimotored jet airliner, designed to carry medium-haul flights. It was developed design bureau to them. Tupolev in 60-ies as a replacement for the Tu-104.
History of creation
The development of new Soviet aircraft, which was to replace the obsolete An-10, 104-Tu and IL-18, Engaged in the chief designer Jager SM with 1963 years. Confronted with the task to design a passenger aircraft, which would in its technical characteristics is not inferior to the American "Boeing-727».
The first test machine has been manufactured in 1966 year and received board room of the USSR-85000. 3.10.1968, under the command of the commander of the board Y. Sukhov the first flight of the Tu-154 was committed. In 1969 was - presented at the air show in Le Bourget.
1970 city - start of series production at the Kuibyshev Aviation Plant (KuAZ).
Since 1971 was worked in the service of mail delivery from Moscow to some of the number 85 the USSR cities (Sochi, Tbilisi, Simferopol).
Onboard accommodation Tu-154 and the Union, and Russia began with the number 85, for example, the USSR-85208, RA-85401. Transporting passengers of "Aeroflot" plane started to 1972 years. The first scheduled flight took 9.02.1972 city (Moscow - Mineralnye Vody), and the first international - 2.04.1972 (Moscow - Berlin).
For the first flights of aircraft showed the need for its modernization. After 2 years beyond the first modification of the Tu-154A with more powerful engines.
As 1981 was released a new version of the Tu-154B with increasing weight with up to 94 98 tons, seating capacity, with the change in wing design and structure of the equipment. Almost all of the first series have been modified by this modification.
1984 - beginning of serial production of Tu-154M (originally Tu-164). They installed more efficient engines developed by Design Bureau named. Solovyov. Maximum take-off weight of the aircraft - 100-104 tons.
In freight aircraft 9 altered (originally called Tu-154T, and then Tu-154S).
5 rebuilt aircraft flying under the lab and were used in the "Buran" space rocket testing programs. They marked Tu-154LL.
Two vehicle converted for the program "Open Skies", which aims - to monitor military operations of NATO and the CIS countries. In 1997 one Tu-154M-OH crashed in Germany.
On the basis of Tu-154 developed the first aircraft in the world, consuming liquefied petroleum gas as fuel.
It should be noted that the modification of the Tu-154 - most mass production aircraft 80-ies in the USSR. They made flights throughout the Union and in more than 80 cities in the world. In addition, "Aeroflot" plane was in the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union aircraft.
For the first time flew 3.10.1968 In mass production entered the city and the 1970 1998 was produced until, with modernized several times. It has been some years in such demand that they are going to 5 aircraft units per month. Since 1998 city and up to 2013, the production moved to the plant "Aviacor" (Samara), but is much weaker. And in February 2013, after release from the conveyor 998-ch Tu-154, closed its production. This airliner rightly bears the title of the main jet passenger aircraft Russian medium-range routes.
Tu-154 served as a replacement for the Tu-104. For aircraft have been put forward more stringent requirements than previous models. These requirements are mainly related to takeoff and landing performance and flight safety.
Work on the design of the aircraft began in 1963 year. The basis was taken by his predecessor Tu-104. But in contrast, the three engine was installed on this plane. All the engines are placed in the rear part. Also, the first in the Soviet passenger plane has been installed backup system of basic management and control systems. It is possible to increase flight safety. Also on the plane was used reverse engines, which improved its landing characteristics.
The Tu-154 compared with Tu-104 has been improved comfort of the passenger compartment. system was installed automatic regulation of air pressure.
At the very beginning of the design Tu-154, the project was laid and the cargo version of the aircraft, designed to carry 25 tons of cargo over a distance of up to 2700 kilometers. In 1968, the first prototypes were built. The test flight took place on October 3 1986 years. During the tests, the aircraft gradually be improved and adjusted to the operating level. in 1969, the aircraft was shown at the international air show in Le Bourget. After all the modifications, as well as the completion of all flight and ground test aircraft went into production. The first production aircraft fitted with engines NK8-2, entered the "Aeroflot" at the end of the year 1970. The first time the aircraft used for the transport of mail. During these flights, it was found that the plane needed improvements in terms of improving the reliability of designs of some nodes. The first flight with passengers airliner made in February 1972 years.
Salon Tu-154 photo salon
Later, an improved version of the Tu-154A was released. Improvements touched propulsion and aerodynamics of the aircraft wing. Tu-1975B - In 154 the following year an upgraded version was produced. This modification had additional fuel tank and additional emergency exits in the rear of the aircraft. The modification of the Tu-154B-1 169 allowed to hold up to a certain class of passengers. A version of the Tu-154B-in 2 180 odnoklassovoy equipment possessed passenger seats. To date, almost all aircraft modifications decommissioned.
The following modernization of the aircraft is designated Tu-154M. This upgraded version of the Tu-154B-2. This aircraft has jet engines D-30KU. It has also improved the aerodynamics of the aircraft and avionics. These innovations have improved fuel efficiency and, accordingly, increase the flight range. Version of the Tu-154M 100-equipped avionics company "Litton", GPS navigation system, new cabin interiors.
Production and operation
Since 1970 and 1998 of all units were produced 918 154-Tu, including:
604 Tu-154, 9 inclusive with cargo Tu-154S, reworked at the end of 80-ies;
He is rightly called the most common passenger airplane in the Soviet Union. Tu-150 154 were sent for export.
Since the first successful flight, perfect in 1972 year, and to the present time has been more than 40 years. Aircraft equipment is technically out of date, and since the mid-2000-ies, it begin to write off flights. In such a step had to go to airlines not so much because of the development of resources or lack of quality of comfort in the plane, as the rate of the cost of the flight. Compared with their Western counterparts engine airliner Tu-154 under the same power consumption indicators of fuel in 2 times more. This can be explained by the fact that the design of the aircraft on the fast ice 60-ies, when the price of fuel was not the determining factor, and therefore fuel consumption in at least was taken into account.
However, even at the end of the Tu-2008 154 took up half the fleet of passenger aircraft Russian airlines. But the global financial crisis, which has plunged many countries at the end of 2008 - 2009 early years, made "old-timer" to leave their positions quickly.
One after the other, taking into account the future financial losses from the operation of Tu-154 began to abandon Russian airlines:
17.10.2008 - completely withdrawn from service the entire fleet of Tu-154 company «S7» - the largest Russian domestic carrier;
2009 of - the rejection of exploitation of STC "Russia" and "Aeroflot" Tu-154 companies. In the last Tu-154 performed regular flights over 38 years.
At the beginning of the XXI century elements airliners obsolete, so it replaced by more advanced counterparts, "Boeing-737» and Airbus A320. Tu-154 was forbidden to perform flights in the EU due to exceeding limits on noise levels. Passes only aircraft equipped with special noise absorbing panels. Completely banned fly Tu-154 (except for TU-154M) over the air space of the EU in the year 2006. At the moment, these airliners operate regularly only in the CIS countries.
Airline "Aeroflot" STC "Russia" and "Siberia" abandoned the operation in Tu-154 2008-2009 years.
16.10.2011 city - the last flight of the airliner with the support of "Ural airlines". This company exploited the most "elderly" passenger Tu-154 in Russia, released back in the city of 1977 But if we take the world scale, according to the 2012, in North Korea (airline AirKoryo) on scheduled flights was still standing car model year 1976 Skid P-552 number.
At the end of 2010 in the territory of the Russian Federation more than 100 Tu-154 different versions are in full operation. In June of the year 2013 the owner of the largest fleet of Tu-154 in Russia becomes the airline UTair (23 liner).
Outside of Russia most of all Tu-154 machines in Kazakhstan - 12 pieces.
At the beginning of the year 2011 154 Tu-made aircraft flying to Tajikistan (5 liners), Belarus (5), Uzbekistan (3), Azerbaijan (3), Kyrgyzstan (3), China (3), North Korea (2).
20.02.2010, the ban was imposed on the operation of Tu-154 state of Iran.
One aircraft remains at the disposal of the Governments of the Czech Republic, Poland, Bulgaria and Slovakia.
According to statistics from the fate of the remaining copies of the Tu-154 as follows:
73 - destroyed as a result of serious accidents and catastrophes;
187 - sent for scrap;
89 - it planned to cut into scrap metal;
24 - museum exhibits, including 1 - a museum-restaurant;
283 - owned airlines, including more than 100 - full airworthiness.
By June, the Tu-2013 154 regular flights to Russia the following airlines:
Utair - 23 liner. It is planned before the end of 2014 completely replace the entire fleet of Tu-154 321 on the Airbus;
«Yakutia» - 4 aircraft;
«ALROSA» - 7 aircraft. For the future it is planned their complete replacement by Boeing-737;
"Space» - 4 airliner;
"Gazpromavia» - 2 flying ship;
"Tatarstan» - 2 liner, plan to buy a third. Operated on the substitution of other boards.
At the beginning of the year 2014 the world are ready to do their job just 80 Tu-154. Nevertheless, this aircraft will remain for a long time in history as one of the most popular mass-produced aircraft of domestic production. The reason for the refusal of many airlines operating from the Tu-154 became not only the outdated equipment and high fuel consumption, but also to numerous accidents and disasters with his participation (although often the investigation established the cause of crashes in the human factor). According to the forecasts of civil aviation experts was already 2015 Tu-154 will be fully deducted from the account of airlines and replaced by more modern machines.
However, it is possible to operate these aircraft by various government agencies (Ministry of Internal Affairs, FSB, MO).
Last Tu-154 19.02.2013 was released at the plant "Aviacor" (former KuAZ) in Samara and received serial number 998.
The shortest flight to 388 kilometers Tu-154 made on flight Baku-Aktau. And the longest flight equal 4869 km - flight from Moscow to Yakutsk.
The aircraft was manufactured more than twenty years of 1970 years 1998 year. Total for this period were made 1025 machines of different modifications. Today in the flight manual is a little less than one hundred cars.
Features of the Tu-154:
Years: 1970-1998 years
Empty weight: 50780 kg
Length: 47,9 m.
Height: 11,4 m.
Wingspan: 37,55 m.
Wing area: 201,45 sq.m.
The width of the fuselage: 3,8 m
Cruising speed: km / h.
Maximum speed: km / h
Flight range: 2500 - 3600 km.
Ceiling: 12200 m
Length of takeoff: 2300 m.
path length: 2030 m.
Number of seats: 160 places.
Crew: 4 person
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