Tu-214. A photo. Video. Driving compartment. Characteristics. Reviews.
Tu-214 is a passenger airplane that serves medium-range airline. This model was developed in the late 80-ies in the former USSR in the design Tupolev. The main objective of the new machine was to replace outdated Tu-154. Production of the new board started from 1990 years in Ulyanovsk and Kazan 1996.
The new model of passenger ship had by-wire system, with which it was possible to control the aircraft. Housing parts and wings have been developed by using digital calculations. This aircraft was also used parts and assemblies that were not available in previous versions of passenger aircraft in its class. The Tu-214 20 has more than a variety of modifications, which include both passenger and cargo models. They have been developed and manufactured passenger VIP-class aircraft and planes for special purposes. The quality and reliability of the aircraft of this model is confirmed by more than 50 various Russian and international quality certificates. Since the Tu-214 international flights, it has the appropriate certificates EU and other countries.
History of the Tu-214
The first design sketches of the new machine have been made in the design Tupolev in 73, the new unit was to replace the Tu-154 on medium-haul flights. In the design was developed and negotiated a variety of options of the new airliner. As a result, we created a new wide-body aircraft, which is equipped with three engines.
In the first version of the model it was planned creation of large baggage compartments, in which it would be possible to load containers of standard sizes. Because of this new machine had two decks, making it easy to change the size of the passenger compartment and load compartment. It was convenient that, in different seasons of the year the number of passengers affected.
Summer 1981 issued a decree on the establishment of a qualitatively new model of medium-range passenger aircraft, which must be equipped with three engine model D-90. New power plants should have lower fuel costs. At the end of the year 1982 assembly layout has been completed. Unfortunately, this model did not have a future.
Designers had to abandon this project, they developed a new twin-engine version. A feature of the new machine was that the power plants have been fixed under the wings. It was a new breakthrough in the design Tupolev, because before that were not created any model aircraft with engines mounted.
At the end of the year 1982 the decision was made Minister of IS Silaev for a new medium-haul aircraft, on which the two at the same time economical and powerful engine model FS-90A will be installed. As for the engine, it has been specifically designed and engineered designer PA Solovyov. Chief designer in the development of the Tu-214 appointed LA Lanovskogo. On the new model was first used by the system "Diana", which was developed in the Tupolev Design Bureau. It provided a power calculation of the entire aircraft structure using the method of using finite element.
When designing was involved in computer technology, which allowed optimally consider the entire design of future cars. New computer-controlled machines, allowing manufacturing detail more accurately have been applied. The latest composite materials, namely, fiberglass and carbon fiber have been used to reduce the overall weight of the aircraft. Ultimately, the amount of composite material has reached 14% of the total weight of the aircraft.
Designers used for cladding sheets of large size, which allowed to significantly reduce the number of joints on the fuselage surface. Much attention has been paid to sound insulation and thermal insulation of the passenger compartment. The first machine Tu-214 was built Tupolev in Moscow, and serial production took over the company "Aviastar-SP" to 1992 years.
For complex testing two of the aircraft Tu-214 were involved that were created to test the reliability and durability of the new prototype passenger jet. Due to the fact that the design of computers, the aircraft received excellent properties were involved. Projected wing and fuselage ultimately had significantly better quality than expected, and they could carry heavier loads than planned.
The first gap from the ground plane took place at Ramenskoye airfield test, it was in January 89 years. The crew of the prototype was equipped with a means of salvation in the event of an emergency. The passenger cabin while the flight was equipped with weighing instruments that record and monitor the entire flight, and conducted an analysis of all aircraft systems.
As a result of tests and flight tests of the aircraft it has been completely revised and improved. For a steering system 23 different options that had to go through all the tests took longer costs have been developed. This factor has been added and the reduction of funding for the project. All this time stretched on test completion. Almost complete cessation of funding 90-ies stopped receiving flight certificate, and in fact, in addition to all this, the plane had to go and performance tests. Certificate on flights Tu-214 1994 has received only in the winter of the year.
Construction machines Tu-214
A passenger plane Tu-214 is a monoplane with a normal circuit and the low-mounted wings that are arrow-shaped. The wings are equipped with two turbofan powerplant and double-slotted flaps, which extend along the entire wing. aircraft Chassis has three support legs increased strength. Due to the great thought-wing and fuselage aircraft can perform a safe landing with broken engines. Moreover it has been proven in practice 2002 year. When the plane ran out of fuel, he was able to make a safe landing with passengers on board, while no one was injured.
This machine has a well thought-out air conditioning system, it takes away the air from the engine compressor. This system provides cooling and heating of the cabin, cockpit, and also provides supply air starter run the power plant. air temperature, which enters the pressurized cabin, determined by sensors, and maintaining a uniform temperature is automatically adjusted.
Control of the aircraft is provided by four circuit, which is based on wire control system. Wheel control is equipped with an automatic, which ensures safety and facilitates the work of the pilots. When jamming of one of the steering wheels is provided aircraft control system using one of the operating hand wheels. The control system automatically excludes the possibility of contact strip tail of the aircraft. It is also able to take into account the angle of deviation with only one engine.
Aircraft powered by electricity generators, which are installed on each engine. In emergency situations, the electricity comes from batteries or aircraft emergency hydraulic drive. The aircraft is powered at a voltage - 115-200 volts.
Fuel is stored in the aircraft integral fuel tank. On passenger aircraft Tu-214 7 located fuel tanks for a total capacity of 35,7 tons. To reduce drag in flight there is an automatic fuel transfer system in the tail tank after take-off, this function allows you to shift the center of gravity.
Tu-214 is also equipped with a system that prevents the ice machine. The most vulnerable parts of the aircraft are the air intakes and engine cowlings, which are mounted on the fans. Frost protection also have sensors aerodynamics and windshield of the aircraft crew. Oddly enough, but the wings of an airplane have their heating systems, as has been confirmed by studies and international experts that the wings of the model of passenger aircraft are not subject to icing.
Passenger aircraft Tu-214 models meet all international standards and have a high efficiency in operation, are highly competitive in the global market.
Tu-214 passenger aircraft, which is an improved model of the Tu-204-100 aircraft with increased takeoff weight and flight range. Aircraft operated in some Russian airlines with 2001 years at air lines over a distance 5000 kilometers.
Production of the Tu-214 small parties continued into the present moment.
Planes of this series - a modern efficient twin-engine single-aisle mainline jets with a high level of comfort and fuel efficiency.
Tu-214 passenger planes and set them on the PS-90A engines are certified by the system of AR IAC and fully meet international standards for the emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere and noise level.
The high flight and technical characteristics, competitiveness, and efficiency in the use of the Tu-214 associated with:
Modern aerodynamic configuration;
An excellent aerodynamic efficiency;
Excellent equipment systems;
Excellent construction of the aircraft, as the glider ,;
Flight and modern navigation equipment complex;
Fuel-efficient modern engines.
TU-214S3 - convertible (converted -cargo - - containerized) plane.
Freight handling in the LD-3-45 containers and eighteen pieces on the upper deck and up to eight pieces of cargo luggage compartments. The transition from full passenger load in full layout takes place in the shortest possible time.
Tu-214F - cargo plane with a payload of up to 32 tons, loading cargo on the main deck through a huge cargo door (3405x2200 millimeters). You can use standard pallets and containers of wide range. Standard design makes it possible to install additional fuel tanks.
Tu-214ON (codenamed "Open Skies") - aircraft, designed for surveillance aircraft, developed by JSC "Tupolev" based on the Tu-214 passenger aircraft. The plane was created specifically to fly under the Treaty on Open Skies over the territory of the member countries and contract to replace the Tu-154M LC-1 and An-30B.
Inside, spacious shelves are arranged luggage, under the cabin floor - huge cargo compartments;
Salon is equipped with a multi-level lighting system;
Apply sound-absorbing structure, which is provided in the cabin low noise;
Installed video and audio entertainment for passengers;
All materials used in the interior of the cabin, meet the standards regarding the smoke, fire and toxicity;
Passengers have a high level of personal comfort.
Cockpit performed based on ergonomic and modern design decisions that are associated with the use of flight control automation and electronic display.
Tu-204-300 with VIP-cabins
Crew: three people;
Passenger: 210 (economy class), 196 (in a two-year option), 168 (in trekhklassnom version);
Length: 46.00 meters;
Wingspan: 42.00 meters;
Height: 13.90 meters;
Wing area: 184.20 square meters;
Curb weight: 84 200 kilogram;
Empty weight: 59 000 kilos;
Takeoff gross weight: 110 750 kilos;
Weight of fuel in the tanks: 6000 kilos;
Pay load: 25.200 kilos;
The landing load: 93000 kilos;
Powerplant: PS-90A engines (two copies);
Cruising speed: 850 kilometers per hour;
Range fully loaded: 4340 kilometers;
Practical range: 6500 kilometers;
Ceiling: 12100 meters;
Rate of climb: 7,0 meters per second (at the ground);
Length of takeoff: 2250 meters;
Year of the first flight of the aircraft: 1996.
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