Navigation and Separation
Flight levels are established by conventional level, which corresponds to the level of the Baltic Sea in the standard atmosphere (atmospheric pressure 760 mm Hg. Art. When the outdoor temperature is + 15 ° C temperature gradient 0,65 ° C and normal humidity).
The height of the tier in the air is determined by the barometric altimeter when installing division «760» barometric scale against the fixed index. Before takeoff the crew must establish evidence barometric altimeter (altimeters) to "zero" by setting the height of the atmospheric pressure (at the level of the airport runway take-off) against the fixed index.
Span barometric altimeter division «760» against the fixed index may only be set after the transition altitude - institutionalized for the aerodrome height of the rectangular path.
When approaching the aerodrome for landing permutation barometric altimeter to the pressure 760 mm Hg. Art. pressure height of the airfield is allowed under the care from a height Eschethe womb of the transition - the lower tier waiting area airport landing.
Before planting in the high airfields at getting on board the message about atmospheric pressure at airfield runways less 670 mm Hg. Art. you must leave the division «760» scale Baro
metric pressure against the fixed index, find the difference in barometric pressure between the 760 and the barometric pressure at the level of the runway airfield landing and express it in meters in the standard atmosphere. Found in this way the value will be zero and the altimeter.
FEATURES AND SEPARATION AT piloting international air routes
Organization and management of flights on international air routes. International called tracks passing over the territory of two or more States.
Features flights on international routes determined by the rules and regulations established by the States concerned, including:
conditions of crossing state borders;
the width of the airways; a system of separation of aircraft;
limits and zones with a special regime of navigation;
airborne and ground documentation regulating flights;
Vehicles and aircraft navigation rules. communication and alarm systems; radix time; rules of a stock of fuel; airfield network.
In all states traffic control services are run by public bodies and the flight of the aircraft, including foreign ones.
Communication with the aircraft carried out mainly in ultra-short waves on the radio in the languages installed for the territories of these states.
In the countries of the international
Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
radio contact with the foreign aircraft are in English.
At international flights each aircraft must be:
a certificate of fitness to fly it;
approved flight plan; weather bulletin.
Terms of flights over various foreign countries are different. For details on the conditions, schemes and routes of flights on certain international routes set out in the special collections issued by aeronautical information service of the Ministry of Civil Aviation Russia(AIS MGA).
In the countries of the ICAO air traffic management is mostly for informational purposes. The crew are given only the height, the exact time of departure and arrival, and sometimes the time span of control points. The rest of the data is transmitted on board the aircraft in the form of information on the basis of which the crew make their own decisions regarding the flight.
Foreign airways tend to have a width of 10 nautical miles (18,52 km). This value determines the required precision piloting.
The member states of the ICAO, the units of measurement used in the airways, which differ from those in Russia. So crews engaged in international flights must have a table or chart to convert one unit to another.
Adopted in countries belonging to the ICAO, and Russian units. Earl "Blue Table" refers to those countries that have not yet been fully adopted the recommendations of the ICAO Units.
Foreign system of separation of aircraft. In different countries different systems of separation. Onefor international flights to almost anywhere already adopted the main borrowed from RussiaThe principle of reference barometric altitude separation of isobaric level surface corresponding to the standard pressure 760 mm prn. Art.
The distribution of the heights of separation depending on the direction of flight in different countries may be different. Used semi-circular and quadrant system.
Semicircle system is mainly used in Russia and US. In the US, for altitudes up to 29 000-foot intervals between the drive-trains are taken to be 2000 feet and between the counter - 1000 feet. For altitudes of 29 000 feet or more appropriate intervals are doubled. When flying in the direction of travel to the corners of the 0 179 °, t. E. To the east, are appointed by the height of the separation, multiple thousands of odd numbersft. For flights to travel to the corners of the 180 359 °, t. E. To the west, shall be appointed by the even trains.
In some countries, members of the ICAO, including in England, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands and others. Adopted quadrant system in which at altitudes up to 29 000 feet passingtrains differ by 2000 feet, and counter - 1000 on foot. Trains for flight direction corresponding to adjacent quadrants are different in heights from one another 500 feet.
At altitudes of more than 29 000 feet appropriate intervals are doubled.
The studies revealed that:
the installation site induction or magnetic sensors on modern aircraft with turbine engines deviation does not exceed the deviation works on the ground with reinforced concrete cover, to make impossible, as there are local anomalies that cause variation in the magnetic compass and exchange systems to ± 5-f- 8 °;
replacement of aircraft gas turbine engines do not affect the accuracy of the exchange rate systems and remote compass.
On this basis, it issued special instructions for the different types of heavy transport aircraft with turbine engines, according to which:
deviation works of routine maintenance work on these aircraft are excluded;
with remote sensor systems, compasses and course corrector device removed;
recommended to carry out the payment instrument errors remote compasses and exchange systems only when replacing the indicator LBM (compass DGMK-7) or correction mechanism;
mounting a sensor error is determined by rotating the sensor to match the course readings for the index navigator with magnetic heading of the aircraft, certain double direction finding its longitudinal axis (nose and tail).
Payment instrument errors coursework devices operate without rotation of the aircraft in the order.
a)For airplanes equipped with compass system COP and giroinduktsionnym compass GIC-1: inductive sensor to remove the aircraft and strengthen it on a rotating platform of non-magnetic kit UPK-3. Connect the sensor to the ESP system transition wiring. Platform antimagnetic fortified installation on it to install a sensor on the wing of the aircraft over the place of attachment of the induction sensor or on a tripod when taking out the installation on the ground;
set the zero reading on the scales pointer navigator and corrective mechanism.
The average error distance transmission section sensor - KM determined in the following order:
set zero readings on the scale of non-magnetic installation and corrective mechanism (CM);
shot counts rate on a scale of KM at the turn antimagnetic installation courses 90, 180 and 270 ° and determines the correction for each course;
the amount of adjustment for the main course is divided into four and is determined by the average error distance transmission;
zero reading on the diamagnetic install corrected by the amount of the average error, and VIII set a course «0».
After taking into account the average error diamagnetic installation consistently set a course 15, 30, 45 and so on. D. To 345 ° and straight-unit course readings in the NL communicated accordingly to 15, 30, 45 and so on. D. To 345 ° while pressing the quick agreement.
b) For airplanes equipped with remote magnetic compass having a sensor such as MPC-3: instrumental errors offset by a reversal of the magnetic sensor MPC-3 15 ° after the sensor on the scale. The reversal of the magnetic system is performed without removing the sensor using any bar magnet;
if discrepancies in the testimony of LBM with the testimony of the course on a scale sensor MPC-3 is necessary to bring the device straight-on angle grinders rate readings to readings of the course on a scale of MPC-3.
Payment radiodeviatsii. Deviation * radiocompass compensated mechanical compensator mounted on the axis of rotation of the loop antenna.
The guide belt through a special transmission mechanism provides an additional axis of rotation of the encoder. With 24 compensation screws tape guide is shaped needed to readout via radio compass 15 ° scale (up to 0 360 °).
Prior to determining radiodeviatsii compensator should be neutralized by removing each screw so that the guide feed has acquired an annular shape (an additional axis of rotation of the encoder at all corners of foreign exchange is zero).
It is recommended to determine radiodeviatsii select a radio station at a distance of 50-60 km. After identifying and eliminating installation errors on the radio compass readout (ORK) 0 and 180 ° should rotate the aircraft and stopping it at the RCA, multiple 15 °, remove the samples. Each count is determined by the JWC actual course angle radio and recorded radiodeviatsiya.
Then plotted deviation radio, and to avoid sharp bends tape extreme values of the graph are divided into three equal parts and build two intermediate radiodeviatsii schedule. After this expansion joint is removed from the frame and the axis of rotation of the respective screw compensate radiodeviatsiyu the first intermediate plan, counting on this RCA introduced the amendment by a special arrow on the compensator. Radiodeviatsiyu compensated and the second intermediate graphics completely compensate her radiodeviatsii curve.
Payment radiodeviatsii on all three charts should be carried out in such a manner that after each positive amendments introduced to the same negative value, ie. E. As if in a mirror image, bearings.
The general order of compensation received by the following: 0 °, 15, 345, 30, 330, 45, 315, 60,300, 75, 285, 90, 270, 105, 255, 120, 240, 135, 225, 150, 210, 165, 195 and 180 °.
After payment radiodeviatsii compensator mechanism is mounted on the frame and turn the plane, check the correctness of the work. If it is found inaccurate, decompensation held radiodeviatsii additional rotation of the screw in the corresponding RCA.
Radiodeviatsii inadmissibility of certain aircraft on the ground, in which the loop antenna AR It is set at the bottom of the fuselage. This is due to the distortion of the electromagnetic field of the electromagnetic waves reflected from the Earth's surface. In such cases radiodeviatsiyu determined in flight, choosing for this radio station, departures of flights on 200-300 km.
The aircraft performs a flight, to cross the line specified for each count bearing azimuth station. Procedure: bearings in flight convenient to take such a Set to compensate radiodeviatsii on compensatory mechanisms, and to the CSD 270-90 ° plane approaching the station, and then removed from it.
To reduce the time it is possible to fly on 24-coal route, t. E. Almost in a circle, passing on 20-
30 seconds in straight flight at each readout radio compass and the course. It should be remembered that there is at each point of reference to be determined MS and to map it to calculate when
processing of data bearing radio from the point of removing the reference.
With both methods, the actual course angle station at the moment of reference determined by the formula
Payment radiodeviatsii performed after landing in the same manner as in the determination of her on the ground, but without checking the accuracy of work, as would require a re-flight.
Each aircraft has a standard schedule radiodeviatsii, if necessary, applied to the mold frame.
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