Mitsubishi A6M Zero-Sen. A photo. Characteristics.
A type: single-engine fighter
Crew: one pilot
Apart from the initial surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in the early morning in December 7 1941 years, perhaps the biggest shock to the American forces in the Pacific have become outstanding performance characteristics of the main carrier-based fighter of the Imperial Japanese Navy - aircraft A6M2 "Zero-Seine» (Zero- Sen) of "Mitsubishi» (Mitsubishi), has excellent proportions. He was quick and agile, armed with two 20-mm cannon and two machine gun 7,7 mm and has an incredible range of flight in 3088 km using discharged ventral fuel tank.
The plane was completely omitted the UK and the US intelligence services in the months before the raid on Pearl Harbor. "Zero" is derived from the requirements of the Staff of the Imperial Navy of 1937 years to build a new aircraft to replace aircraft A5M company "Mitsubishi", then the main fighter fleet. Work proceeded without delay, and the first prototype flew in April 1 1939 years, and the first fighters entered service the following year. About 10 500 fighter "Zero" was built in no less than eight different versions, and although the end of the year 1943 more powerful fighters the US surpassed them, the aircraft "Zero" keep some combat capability due to its weight. By the end of the year 1944 most Japanese squadron was forced to fly from ground bases, as was once the proud carrier fleet was sunk.
Finally, in a desperate attempt to set of aircraft "Zero" were urgently converted into "flying bomb" and thrown under the control of Kamikaze pilots in the attack on the huge naval forces invading the Philippines, Iwo Jima and Okinawa. In the US, two copies of the aircraft are maintained in a state of airworthiness, at the same time, several aircraft are restored to flight.
The aircraft in its time was one of the symbols of the Second World War. It belonged to the Japanese fighter aircraft fleet. The new machine has been designed to replace in the future fighter A5m. Moreover, it should surpass previous analogs speed, but would not yield in this case in terms of maneuverability.
The plane belongs to the carrier-based and, of course, should have a good takeoff and landing characteristics. This is especially true range. This aircraft was first used in the Japanese practice armed with guns (20 millimeters) and a couple of guns.
The aircraft developed aircraft Horikoshi. The most important component of such an aircraft - is its engine. Fighter has received a closed cabin and improved aerodynamics. The first type of aircraft was tested in 1939 year.
The plane had a capacity of 940 horsepower. Wingspan 12 meters length meters 9, 3,5 meters height. Wing area is 22 square meters. The empty weight of the aircraft had 1695 kilos, the ceiling of the aircraft 1 kilometer. Aircraft of this type are used primarily for maintenance of heavy bombers. They are often used in the war, and they made a large number of sorties. When the war with the United States, the Imperial Navy had in its composition more than 400 fighters of this type.
In April 1842 aircraft carrier, the connection is made the raid, it was a blow for the projects of Ceylon. Here Zero showed great superiority over all those fighters who resisted them. In this case, he played a major role in the level of training of the pilots of Japan. In addition, they participated in the Battle of aircraft carriers in the Battle of the Coral Sea. Unfortunately we do not have time to cover Sehu aircraft carrier, and the US Air Force still sink it, but they provided the actions of their strike groups. Fighters of this type can always reliably cover up its own aircraft carrier.
Sometimes they can act not only as a fighter, but as a dive attack aircraft. Still, during the war in 44-year initiative passed to the Americans. When there were fights over the islands, there are many pilots died carrier-based aircraft. Japanese carrier fleet has lost its former power, and few fighters Zero participated in air battles. It may be added that such aircraft participated frequently as aircraft bombers. It's safe to say that at this time a plane is outstanding. He had a huge range.
For example, if the Messerschmitt-109 had a combat radius of turn, like the Zero, the Battle of Britain could be quite different. In this case, Germany would be able to completely control the airspace over Britain.
It can be said about some of the weak points of this plane. He had a light engine, which had no provision to increase the capacity of a lot. We can not say that the work performed on the aircraft design bureau. They worked hard to design a glider.
The Japanese have always followed the direction of the development of technology in the global aircraft industry. Great attention was paid and weapons. Here are some developers have understood that in order to destroy enemy aircraft, Zero must have heavy weapons. All this was due to the fact that the machines potential enemy had a large margin. That is why the plane had to put a gun Swiss "Oerlikon". While such guns are common in Europe.
The Japanese have been able to draw attention to the fact that the gun was a small initial velocity of the projectile, but the gun was light and had a small size. It could easily install the wings of a low profile. Simply put, it was the main armament of the Japanese aircraft. When the car was presented as a finished product, the design of the aircraft immediately got a lot of enemies.
Around this aircraft sparked very serious debate. Some spoke of this lack, as a closed cabin, it can restrict the view for the pilot. One of the generals defended the aircraft and stated that its main advantage lies in its good maneuverability. In this case, even possible to dispense with heavy weapons, also it was also a limited range, they could accompany bombers. This used Chinese and Japanese bombers do what they wanted. Another important characteristic of the fighter was the maximum speed.
In this case, he was always an advantage to impose their battle tactics to the enemy. If the pilots are well trained management of such aircraft, it can win over the opponent. This can be even when the opponent will have the advantage of maneuverability.
It was a lot of controversy, and there was a threat that the project can be closed. However, the Commission has provided the designer Horikoshi theoretical calculations, which states that the future aircraft will have all the necessary qualities to a sufficient degree.
The plane was going at a factory Mitsubishi. He was tested for a long time, and only after that the aircraft was adopted by the Japanese fleet. Many pilots responded positively on this plane. He showed himself well in combat, and all efforts were aimed at to increase the production of these aircraft.
Japanese bombers suffered heavy losses, so they needed protection. The aircraft at the time had no competition in the skies during the war. He produced the best airline. In the fortieth year of aviation in Japan is much superior to their opponents and allies.
It may be added that some Japanese pilots thought the aircraft for a samurai sword. This fighter was involved in almost all the air battles that held the Imperial Japanese Navy. Its high range and agility have become almost legendary. To date, the aircraft remains a symbol of Japanese aviation.
- Length: 9,07 m
- Wingspan: 11 m
- Height: 3,5 m
- BLANK: 1894 kg
- Maximum take-off: 2950 kg
Aircraft performance characteristics:
- Maximum speed: 557 km / h
- Range: 1800 km
Power point: engine NK1C «Sakae» (Sakae) 12 of "Nakayama" (to modify A6M2) engine "Sakae» (Sakai) 21 (on the modification A6M5) and engine R-1830 «Twin Wasp" Company "Pratt & Whitney" (to copy A6M2 at the Museum of Flying)
Power: 925 l. from. (690 kW), ISO liter. from. (843 kW) and 1200 l. from. (894 kW), respectively
Date of first flight:
- April 1 1939 years
The surviving airworthy modifications:
- A6M2 and A6M5
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