Air motors. The types of engines used in aircraft
It is thanks to the use of other engines, the progress of the development of modern aviation continues to develop. The first aircraft that were not equipped with engines almost did not get their practical application, because they could not carry more than one person, and a significant distance is overcome by such aircraft can not be called great.
All other engines can be divided into 9 major categories.
- Steam air engines;
- Piston air motors;
- Nuclear air engines;
- Air missile engines;
- Jet air engines;
- Gas turbine air engines;
- Turboprop air engines;
- Turbofan engines air.
Steam engines Searching
Steam engines air hardly found its practical application in the aviation industry due to the low efficiency of their work. The main principle of the steam engine aircraft is to transform the reciprocating motion of the pistons into rotary motion of the screw by using the energy of steam.
It is worth noting that the original steam engines air to be used in the early days of aviation, when the steam source was the most affordable, but because of the massiveness of its construction steam engines were unable to raise the aircraft.
Piston air motors
The reciprocating air motor is a conventional internal combustion engine, wherein heat expandable gas converts piston motion into rotary motion of the screw. These air motors have found their use, and are used to this day because of the simplicity of operation, and low-cost manufacturing.
Efficiency of piston aircraft engines, as a rule, no more than 55%, but it did not bother modern aircraft designers, since this engine has a high reliability.
Nuclear other engines
The first atomic air engines began to appear in the middle of the last century, when the study began peaceful atom. The basic principle of the nuclear aircraft engine is the implementation of a controlled nuclear chain reaction, which allowed to give a huge power at a relatively small cost level.
Nuclear other engines appeared almost simultaneously in the United States and the Soviet Union, but the idea that the plane, albeit with a very compact nuclear reactor on its board might fall and this subsequently will lead to disaster, forced to abandon the idea.
In the US nuclear aircraft engine used in the aircraft Convair NB-36H, and the Soviet Union on the aircraft Tu-95 and An-22.
Air missile engines
The first air missile engines appeared in the early 40 of the last century in Germany, the Germans tried every effort to create a fast plane that would bring them victory in World War II. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that the science in those years did not allow to make a precise calculation of certain parameters, so the project was never realized. Subsequently air missile engines were tested only with the possibility of their use for the acceleration of aircraft in the stratosphere, but its applicability is very limited, because today they are not used.
The main disadvantage of the rocket aircraft engine is the almost complete lack of control at high speeds.
Jet engines other
Jet engines are quite common today in aircraft and aviakonstruktorskom case. The principle of operation of the air motor is based on the fact that the necessary thrust for an aircraft is created by converting the kinetic energy of the internal energy of jet aviation fuel.
Jet engines are very reliable and efficient, and therefore in the near future should not expect their further improvement and development.
Gas turbine engines are air
The principle of operation of a gas turbine aircraft engine is based on the compression and heating gas, whose energy is subsequently converted into mechanical work, forcing to rotate the gas turbine. The first engines of this class appeared in Germany in the early 40-ies of the last century, and today they still continue to be widely used in military aircraft, such as installed on the aircraft Su-27, MiG-29, F-22, F -35 etc.
Gas turbine engines are very efficient air at relatively low speeds of movement of aircraft, and therefore their use in civil aviation is also quite reasonable.
Turboprop engines Searching
Turboprop engines are other peculiar kind of gas turbine aircraft engines, whose operation is based on the fact that the energy of the hot gases is converted into rotation of the screw, and about 10% of the total energy is converted into pushing the jet.
Turboprop air motors have good performance, and reliable, making them effective and applicable in civil aviation on many aircraft.
Pulsating air jet engines
Pulsejet were not used in modern aircraft due to its poor efficiency. The main feature of their operation is that they work on the principle of jet engine. The only difference is that the fuel in the combustion chamber is fed intermittently, creating a peculiar pulses, allowing the object to move in a predetermined direction.
Pulsejet effective only when their single-use, in the following cases, their use reduces itself and the reliability and increases costs.
Turbofan engines Searching
The principle of turbofan aircraft engines is to ensure that the supply due to fan air. Provides complete combustion of fuel due to excess oxygen, which makes these air engines and more efficient and at the same time most environmentally friendly. They are used like air turbofan engines usually on large airliners, as almost always they have a big design due to the need to discharge the additional air volume.
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