Tu-4, or the product "P", NATO codified as "Bull". It is a Soviet strategic bomber piston held at YES Soviet Air Force during the period from the beginning of the year 1949 60-ies. I made a copy of the American bomber B-29, created by reverse engineering method. At the same time, the equipment, the design and interior of the pressurized cabin were completely copied from the American counterpart. We changed only weapons, propulsion, and Propeller engines of the station. Domestic engines were slightly more powerful than the foreign (in 200 hp difference). The defensive armament consisted of ten rapid-type guns (caliber - 23 mm). This greatly increased the defenses of the future "Superfortress". In the Soviet Union, the Tu-4 was the last heavy bomber with the presence of piston engines.
The range of the airplane was observed in 5100 km, because of this, he was considered a long-range bomber. These aircraft were the main striking force to the middle of 50-ies. They are equipped with refueling in the air system, which gave them the ability to apply, if necessary, retaliate against the United States, all over Europe, including England.
Since virtually all aircraft factories adjusted to the production of the Tu-4, them in a short time were able to retrain for new high-class bombers. This aircraft is the first car in the world, which have established a system of remote control.
By the end of WWII, Soviet strategic aviation has virtually disappeared. This is due to the fact that the main types of aircraft impact were medium-range bomber Il-4 and physically obsolete heavy TB-3. By the year 43 all remaining TB-3 sent to BTA. At the forefront of the USSR consisted ADD IL-4 and a small detachment of TB-7 four-engine bombers. Naturally, they could not seriously affect the military operations. A to TB-year 1944 7 and all began to give way before the In-17 because of the lack of production of high-rise Soviet-made high-power motors. TB-7 could not get past the German defense in the daytime.
In 1943, the idea of the atomic bomb was actively developed in the USSR. Accordingly, it was necessary to create a plane that can carry her. Air Force together with the Council of Ministers sent a request for such a machine in the Tupolev Design Bureau, the only CB, which had the most extensive experience in the Soviet Union in aircraft heavy bombers.
In September, this idea was supported by Yakovlev. He offered to help in the creation of A. Tupolev conceptual design, which will make the base for the US In-29. Moreover, the construction will be based on Soviet technology, materials and equipment. In 1944, the plant №156 under the leadership of Tupolev began work on the sketch plane. There he was indexed as the plane 64.
Especially quickly went to work after receiving the USSR American counterpart. In June 44, the American bomber B-29-5-BW was shot down by Japanese antiaircraft complex in Manchuria. The captain sent a plane in the direction of the Soviet Union (Central airfield-Corner). In August of the same year in the hands of the Red Army was shot down B-29A-1-BN, in November, due to a lack of fuel - In-29-15-BW. The fourth instance-29-15-BW mistaken orientations. The fifth car was wrongly intercepted and shot down by the Soviet Air Force 14 IAP. Thus, for the design of a heavy bomber USSR acquired American counterparts.
25 May 1945 year due to a serious backlog of Red Army Air Force in terms of the US aircraft had been proposed in the NCAP for copying from EDO Aircraft In-29 engineers.
In 1945 was A. Tupolev OKB received an official notification of the freezing of all projects. Instead, they should as soon as possible to start the robot to copy American in-29.
As a result, in a very short period of time it was created by B-4 (future Tu-4), who was absolutely exact copy of the American aircraft in-29. even special hole jar of soda water and container ashtrays were copied. For the first time the plane took off 9 May 1947 years. Instantly began mass production, even though flight test and continued until 1949 years.
Copying was carried out in the period from July to March 45 46 years. In November 1945, the parallel process of copying was decided to start production of engines, like the American Ash-72.
The design of the Tu-4
The aircraft is an all-metal cantilever monoplane normal scheme. Mid-wing designed dvuhlonzheronnoe way with high elongation. Round-section semi-monocoque fuselage is presented. Securing the fuselage single-fin vertical tail, horizontal, represented by a cantilever. The controls consist of aileron, elevator and direction.
Semi-monocoque fuselage has a circular cross-section, which lining is attached to the frames and stringers. D-16T (duralumin) is used as a material for the cladding sheets. fuselage frame is constructed through 60 the frames (normal and power) and stringers in the number 40 the pieces, which are power longitudinal beams.
Lanterns nose fairing and cockpit mounted in the contours of the dome of the fuselage. They are made of magnesium alloy castings. It should be noted that the pressurized cabin for the first time in the USSR in the bombers were met with a comfortable and easily accessible to the crew, which consists of 11 people: commander - left the pilot, co-pilot - the right pilot, navigator, mechanic, scorer, radio operator, 4 arrow operator on-board radar.
The central part of the fuselage located between the convex pressure bulkhead middle and front of the pressurized cabin. It also forms the rear and front of the bomb bay. Immediately placed wing caisson. Underneath reinforced oxygen tanks and radar unit. Average pressurized cabin and the front join hands with each other through germolazu. Aft fuselage cell starts from the transition to the middle part of the pressurized cabin. Presented in the form of a conical-shaped unpressurized compartment.
Wing belongs to a class of high aspect ratio. The plan is trapezoidal and slightly izlomleno in internal nacelle. Structurally-wing power scheme dvuhlonzheronnoe with stressed skin. Beam wing spars consist of I-section of the powerful D-16T zones. To reduce aerodynamic drag nacelles are made in a streamlined form. Intercooler and oil cooler installed at the front of the engine cooling air intake.
The plumage is a horizontal and vertical. It is composed of two horizontal elevators and stabilizer, vertical - of the rudder and keel.
CPG presented tricycle landing gear, which is completely removed, the rear flaps and the safety reference fifth. Basic rack as well as the nose are formed by cantilever scheme. These integrated oil-gas shock absorbers and dual wheels. Gapless single-section flaps function as an additional means of stopping or lifting during landing or take-off.
On the plane established 4 18-cylinder piston engine air cooling. Fitted with a supercharger drive AL-73TK has two turbochargers. The total volume of the fuel tanks - 20 180 l.
Tu-4 - base production model
Tu-4A - designed to carry a nuclear bomb
Tu-4R - Intelligence Model
Tu-4K - the presence of missiles KS-1
Tu-4D - landing model
Tu-4T - transporter
Tu-4LL - flying laboratory
Tupolev Tu-4 Environmental Specifications:
|Wing area, m2||161.7|
|engine's type||4 PD AL-73TK|
|Power, hp||X 4 2000|
|Speed, km / h|
|Flight distance, km||5100|
|Practical ceiling, m||11200|
|Armament:||Small arms - originally 10 machine guns UB (12,7 mm), then 10 guns B-20E caliber 20 mm and later NA-23 (23 mm) in the five towers - two in the front cabin, one in the back, one for her and one in the rear cab|
|Bomb load 6000-8000 kg (6-8 FAB-1000).|
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