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Tupolev Tu-4


Tu-4, or product "R", in NATO was codified as "Bull". It is a Soviet strategic piston bomber that was in service with the USSR Air Force in the period from 1949 to the beginning of the 60-ies. It is made as a copy of the B-29 American bomber, created by the method of reverse engineering. At the same time, the equipment, design and interior of the hermachine were completely copied from the American analog. Only weapons, power plant, propeller-driven group and radio station were changed. Domestic engines were slightly more powerful than foreign ones (difference in 200 hp). The defensive type of weapons included ten quick-firing cannons (caliber - 23 mm). This greatly increased the defensibility of the future "supercritical". In the Soviet Union, the Tu-4 was the last heavy bomber with the presence of piston engines.

Tu-4 photo

The range of the airplane was observed in 5100 km, because of this, he was considered a long-range bomber. These aircraft were the main striking force to the middle of 50-ies. They are equipped with refueling in the air system, which gave them the ability to apply, if necessary, retaliate against the United States, all over Europe, including England.

Since virtually all aircraft factories adjusted to the production of the Tu-4, them in a short time were able to retrain for new high-class bombers. This aircraft is the first car in the world, which have established a system of remote control.

By the end of the WWII, Soviet strategic aviation had practically disappeared. This is due to the fact that the main airplanes of the attack type were medium-range bomber Il-4 and physically obsolete heavy TB-3. By 43, all the remaining TB-3 were sent to BTA. In the forefront of ADD USSR consisted of Il-4 and a small detachment of four-engine bombers TB-7. Naturally, they could not seriously affect the military actions. And by 1944, TB-7 had started to give way to B-17 because of the lack of high-performance, high-powered Soviet-made engines. TB-7 could not pass German air defense during the daytime.


In 1943, the idea of ​​the atomic bomb was actively developed in the USSR. Accordingly, it was necessary to create a plane that can carry her. Air Force together with the Council of Ministers sent a request for such a machine in the Tupolev Design Bureau, the only CB, which had the most extensive experience in the Soviet Union in aircraft heavy bombers.

In September, this idea was supported by Yakovlev. He offered to help in the creation of A. Tupolev conceptual design, which will make the base for the US In-29. Moreover, the construction will be based on Soviet technology, materials and equipment. In 1944, the plant №156 under the leadership of Tupolev began work on the sketch plane. There he was indexed as the plane 64.

Especially quickly went to work after receiving the USSR American counterpart. In June 44, the American bomber B-29-5-BW was shot down by Japanese antiaircraft complex in Manchuria. The captain sent a plane in the direction of the Soviet Union (Central airfield-Corner). In August of the same year in the hands of the Red Army was shot down B-29A-1-BN, in November, due to a lack of fuel - In-29-15-BW. The fourth instance-29-15-BW mistaken orientations. The fifth car was wrongly intercepted and shot down by the Soviet Air Force 14 IAP. Thus, for the design of a heavy bomber USSR acquired American counterparts.


25 May 1945 year due to a serious backlog of Red Army Air Force in terms of the US aircraft had been proposed in the NCAP for copying from EDO Aircraft In-29 engineers.

In 1945 was A. Tupolev OKB received an official notification of the freezing of all projects. Instead, they should as soon as possible to start the robot to copy American in-29.

As a result, in a very short period of time it was created by B-4 (future Tu-4), who was absolutely exact copy of the American aircraft in-29. even special hole jar of soda water and container ashtrays were copied. For the first time the plane took off 9 May 1947 years. Instantly began mass production, even though flight test and continued until 1949 years.

Copying was carried out in the period from July to March 45 46 years. In November 1945, the parallel process of copying was decided to start production of engines, like the American Ash-72.

The design of the Tu-4

The aircraft is an all-metal cantilever monoplane normal scheme. Mid-wing designed dvuhlonzheronnoe way with high elongation. Round-section semi-monocoque fuselage is presented. Securing the fuselage single-fin vertical tail, horizontal, represented by a cantilever. The controls consist of aileron, elevator and direction.

Tu-4 cabin

Semi-monocoque fuselage has a circular cross-section, which lining is attached to the frames and stringers. D-16T (duralumin) is used as a material for the cladding sheets. fuselage frame is constructed through 60 the frames (normal and power) and stringers in the number 40 the pieces, which are power longitudinal beams.

Lanterns nose fairing and cockpit mounted in the contours of the dome of the fuselage. They are made of magnesium alloy castings. It should be noted that the pressurized cabin for the first time in the USSR in the bombers were met with a comfortable and easily accessible to the crew, which consists of 11 people: commander - left the pilot, co-pilot - the right pilot, navigator, mechanic, scorer, radio operator, 4 arrow operator on-board radar.

The central part of the fuselage located between the convex pressure bulkhead middle and front of the pressurized cabin. It also forms the rear and front of the bomb bay. Immediately placed wing caisson. Underneath reinforced oxygen tanks and radar unit. Average pressurized cabin and the front join hands with each other through germolazu. Aft fuselage cell starts from the transition to the middle part of the pressurized cabin. Presented in the form of a conical-shaped unpressurized compartment.

Wing belongs to a class of high aspect ratio. The plan is trapezoidal and slightly izlomleno in internal nacelle. Structurally-wing power scheme dvuhlonzheronnoe with stressed skin. Beam wing spars consist of I-section of the powerful D-16T zones. To reduce aerodynamic drag nacelles are made in a streamlined form. Intercooler and oil cooler installed at the front of the engine cooling air intake.

Tu-4 2 cabin

The plumage is a horizontal and vertical. It is composed of two horizontal elevators and stabilizer, vertical - of the rudder and keel.

CPG presented tricycle landing gear, which is completely removed, the rear flaps and the safety reference fifth. Basic rack as well as the nose are formed by cantilever scheme. These integrated oil-gas shock absorbers and dual wheels. Gapless single-section flaps function as an additional means of stopping or lifting during landing or take-off.

On the plane established 4 18-cylinder piston engine air cooling. Fitted with a supercharger drive AL-73TK has two turbochargers. The total volume of the fuel tanks - 20 180 l.

Modifications Tu-4

  1. Tu-4 - base production model

  2. Tu-4A - designed to carry a nuclear bomb

  3. Tu-4R - Intelligence Model

  4. Tu-4K - the presence of missiles KS-1

  5. Tu-4D - landing model

  6. Tu-4T - transporter

  7. Tu-4LL - flying laboratory


Tupolev Tu-4 Environmental Specifications:

Modification Tu-4
Wingspan, m 40.05
Length m 30.18
Height, m  
Wing area, m2 161.7
Weight, kg  
empty aircraft 32270
normal takeoff 47500
maximum take-off 66000
engine's type 4 PD AL-73TK
Power, hp X 4 2000
Speed, km / h  
maximum 558
Flight distance, km 5100
Takeoff, m 960
Mileage, m 1070
Practical ceiling, m 11200
Crew 11
Armament: Small arms - originally 10 machine guns UB (12,7 mm), then 10 guns B-20E caliber 20 mm and later NA-23 (23 mm) in the five towers - two in the front cabin, one in the back, one for her and one in the rear cab
Bomb load 6000-8000 kg (6-8 FAB-1000).


Tu-4 video




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Overall, I really like the plane. Specifications in his normal, and already it is possible to fasten a Tu-4, and that it represents. Operated he is also very long (1949-1960), as its importance was very big. Of course, it does not produce as much, and in 1952 year ended, but everything that had to do well and reliably served. Yes, it seems to me that more and there was no need to produce, because, roughly, 1200-4 copies Tu completely would be enough.
At that time, bombers were rapidly produced, so Tu-4 was also it. He was a heavy bomber and did very difficult tasks. Now I would like to express my opinion as to arms. Most of all I was surprised that this plane had bombs. This is certainly not very strange, but still, if compared with the previous bombers created, or, approximately, the same years, then they just had guns and machine guns. The bombs were both high-explosive and nuclear. In addition to bombs, he also has rifle and cannon armament, this is even more pleasing. After all, he can not only drop bombs on the enemy, but, and also defend himself.

"Bull" is not just a plane, it improved the Soviet copy of the American B-29. I read that it was copied completely with American. Even banks stand for "cola" or that they have been there at that moment, they blinked. And then kind of like something remade well, and to get that-4. Excellent bomber. He appeared nine years earlier in service with the Soviet Air Force, and the war may have gone differently. Maybe even faster.

It is called the Bull, and I would call him an American. He completely with "Beshki" lapped. Even in appearance is no different. Only instead of stars, our worth. By the way I read it about five American In-29 flopped near our territories. Our natural past have not been good, well and took the aircraft itself. Here and I copied it to the Tu-4. And as cupholders, so, too, is an interesting story. If the US pilots were allowed to drink and smoke at the helm, is our no-no. Go see where the discipline was, and where Humpty Dumpty.

"Bull" is not just a plane, it improved the Soviet copy of the American B-29. I have read that it is completely copied from the American. Even banks stand for "cola" or Che them there was at that time we blinked. And then kind of like something remade well, and to get that-4. Excellent bomber. He appeared nine years earlier in service with the Soviet Air Force, and the war may have gone differently. Maybe even faster.