Are you here
New horizontal tail V -
aircraft manufacturing technology of the future.
Modern aircraft It is of great importance for the development of our country as in the civil aspect and the military. Development and improvement is to increase aviation safety, improved and simplified production technology, improving the performance of aircraft. These are important components in the development and design of aircraft. Qualitative and quantitative indicators characterizing the reliability and value of the related aircraft, have different parameters. But most important of all is the performance - reliability and value of the payload of the aircraft weight share.
This term implies a finansovo - the effective value of the aircraft.
In this article, we propose a new way to control the aircraft stabilizer located in the front and deflected in the vertical plane - from the "zero" position to the maximum position of positive or negative «V» stabilizer. Such a process helps to increase the stabilizer control maneuverability of the aircraft Reduce fuel consumption, but also improve the efficiency of the airport rate.
Efficiency the airport - This increase in bandwidth chelovekopotoka for a certain period of time, it is possible to provide a reduction of the period when the approach of the aircraft to land.
The aircraft with the placement in front of the regulator received in the literature the name " duck ", But this form is statically unstable. The proposed scheme is in my article will increase static stability of the aircraft such a scheme, compared with the conventional scheme, "duck", and also it does not require expenditures for stability pitch axis.
tangage - (From French - tangage) the slope of the aircraft with respect to the main transverse axis (yet it is called a longitudinal bias). Pitch is measured from zero to a positive or negative angle position of the aircraft.
The proposed scheme of the article can be considered as promising for commercial aircraft, as well as for potential use in aircraft transport aircraft.
And all of these benefits are relevant in the context of the economic crisis.
Learning that in modern fighter-interceptor aircraft of Russian military aircraft Su - 27S first thrust vectoring system was used in the world, and inspired by the author's reflections on the establishment of a system stabilizer angle change position on the aircraft. And since its inception.
With the use of the system change in the cross «V» stabilizer rose in some aircraft aerodynamic elements, which in turn would lead to a violation of these properties of aircraft and possible destruction of aircraft components.
This development is appropriate and it is expected to implement both the air forces that will strengthen their defense capability, reliability and all-weather, and various military - transport and passenger samples of both existing and future aviation technology, aims to increase transport efficiency .
Also, you should study the side, which is to reduce (or possible increase) noise barrier at the intersection of supersonic aircraft. This factor is now completely understood, but in order to prove the probability of this statement, it is necessary to do a lot of calculations and spend a lot of experiments, it will take a lot of time and workload. In addition, to carry out such experiments are relevant specialists with great scientific - research base and experience in the design and aircraft.
In this paper we propose to consider the following issues:
- a) the necessary design changes, additional related weight changes and ways to neutralize them.
- b) balancing, stability and flight control with the new system.
- c) the impact of this modification on the efficiency of the aircraft.
- g) the positive effect of this change on the safety of the flight.
On my main achievements in the study of this technology.
The theme, as already discussed in receipt unique, and no one ever investigated in the world.
In order to enter into the swing of things, I talk about naming some of the aircraft. (Figure "duck" scheme)
1 - fuselage, 2 - horizontal tail, 3 - vertical tail, 4 - wing.
This is the main part of the aircraft, which will be dedicated to art.
The basis of this article is a report on the horizontal feathersThat is the invention as well as its application in different perspective planes.
Now carry out the same story of the horizontal stabilizer and tail.
Horizontal tail - Part of the tail of the aircraft, which is designed to provide longitudinal stability of the aircraft, and aircraft control.
The difference between the stabilizer and the horizontal tail surface is that the composition comprises horizontal tail stabilizer and elevator, and stabilizer - Part of the horizontal stabilizer to provide longitudinal stability.
At subsonic aircraft flying horizontal tail usually consists of a real estate or limited real stabilizer and mobile elevator.
Movable stabilizer and elevator can be deflected with respect to their axes. In the event (turn) into any corner of the elevator on the horizontal tail appears more aerodynamic force, and on this basis - an additional torque about the center of gravity of the aircraft. According to subsonic speeds, the conventional steering wheel height of the aircraft provides aircraft handling effectively. In those cases where in-flight alignment varies greatly, the efficiency of the stabilizer is insufficient part-turn, driven steerable stabilizer used.
alignment - Is the center of gravity of the aircraft. But if more precisely, it limits that define the ability of the aircraft center of gravity (for example, when loading on the ground, in the formulation of the fuel in the air, when moving cargo during air landing). These boundaries are drawn up now-developers and the operation of the aircraft should strictly comply with them, for the slightest deviation from the alignment of the requirements and going beyond this limit will inevitably lead to avikatastrofe.
Fig. № 2. Driving forces acting on the aircraft.
G - gravity aircraft, Y - lift, P - Rod, Q - the drag force.
At subsonic aircraft departing flight speeds of the elevator leads to the appearance of additional forces on the horizontal tail assembly is not only due to most vehicles, but also as a result of the stabilizer pressure redistribution.
The author would like to point out that the flight of the aircraft at subsonic and supersonic speed is significantly different, which is primarily caused by the shock waves.
shock wave - A shock wave characteristic of supersonic gas flows narrow area in which, if we consider it fixed, there is a sharp decrease in gas velocity and a corresponding increase in pressure, temperature, density and entropy of the gas. .. The thickness of the shock wave in a direction normal to the surface, ie, the length over which the change parameters of the gas is small - of the order of the mean free path of the molecules. In most cases, this value is neglected, but it is important for us.
During the flight of the aircraft at supersonic speeds - The effectiveness of the elevator tends to decrease. This tendency to decrease because the pressure change caused by the deviation of steering does not go beyond the shock, and thus does not reach the stabilizer. Consequently, the deviation of the elevator does not show any influence on the scope and nature of the pressure distribution along the stabilizer. Because of this, on airplanes with supersonic flight speed has been used all-moving horizontal tail. The transition to all-moving horizontal tail allowed to increase its (horizontal stabilizer) on the effectiveness of some acoustic and supersonic flight speeds, especially at high altitudes.
Nowadays, sometimes all-moving horizontal tail is used for cross-control aircraft. His console deflected along the longitudinal control and differentiated - in the management of roll .
First of all, the author wants to talk about efficiency, as well as about the positive qualities of the project. For comparison, the author provides several forms of aircraft (the classical form and duck).
The classic form is both and minuses and pluses, which define the concept of its further development. The world's most widespread this form, as it is characterized by its simple shape and has great prospects for further development. Another reason is that the aerodynamic form is ideal for commercial aircraft such as for example An -124 и Boeing - 777F (an essential difference between them lies in the methods of loading and / or unloading of the goods). The plane AN - 124 has a ramp on which the loading and / or unloading cargo, and Boeing - 777 it goes through the doorway into the fuselage plane. ) But we should not forget about its shortcomings, such as less useful volume for fuel, and even the cost of the ballast. But this form is somewhat simpler than the form of "duck".
The classical form has a significant positive side:
- - Before the wing of the aircraft has no parts that could darken it when changing the position of the aircraft or to disturb the incoming air flow that would violate the smooth flow of the wing, and would reduce its carrying capacity;
- - Placement of the horizontal tail rear wing allows to shorten the nose of the fuselage, improves visibility and gives us the opportunity to reduce the area of the horizontal tail (forward fuselage creates a destabilizing yaw moment).
- Moreover, this form has some disadvantages:
- - Horizontal tail operates in a beveled and hindered wing airflow due to this real (genuine) feathering angle of attack may become negative, and its streamlined flow rate will be less than on the wing;
- - Almost in all flight modes, horizontal tail creates negative lift force as a result of the reduced lift aircraft, in particular a loss in lifting force is particularly great in the takeoff and landing of the aircraft.
The shape of the aircraft with the layout of "duck" is used much less, and in general in military aircraft. Another drawback - it requires special training of pilots, because it is statically unstable. This example as pendulum . If it is inferred from the equilibrium position, it will be rolled from side to side, and then still come back to the equilibrium position. This corresponds to the usual scheme of the aircraft, and "duck" scheme does not return to its equilibrium position. But with this system, changes in the cross «V» stabilizer may be somewhat improved handling plane (for a "duck" and reduce fuel consumption, to airplanes classical scheme is still possible to greatly increase the maneuverability and stability of the aircraft when the critical load, and when the combat maneuvers).
The main advantages of "duck" scheme:
- - The wing does not affect the characteristics of flow over the horizontal tail
- - Horizontal tail in the air creates a positive lift
- - For achieving large angles of attack stall on the horizontal tail plane automatically translates into smaller angles of attack, reduces the risk of transition to the supercritical wing angles of attack and disrupt the aircraft into a spin
Now, the author would like to emphasize the efficiency of the system.
The very positive effect is to reduce the negative impact of the stabilizer on the wing flow.
Stabilizer - It is one of the most important horizontal plane of the aircraft, which ensures the stability of the aircraft.
stabilizer fin design and consists of a set of longitudinal (spars, stringers and wall), a cross-kit (ribs), and plating.
Stabilizers and the tail fin are usually two-spar or caisson construction, while relatively simple provided their strength and rigidity.
Bending accepted or belts spars, stringers or with a shell, the lateral force - mostly walls spars; Twist - closed circuit, which consists of plating the walls of the longitudinal side members and walls.
Stabilizers may be releasable or non-releasable in scope.
When a small area and the relatively short length of the longitudinal beams of the horizontal tail stabilizer often made one-piece, because of this, their design is more simple and easy.
Connectors on the scope of the stabilizer, which are provided in advance of technology requirements and operation, located in the plane of symmetry plane of the fuselage at the side or at the keel.
The lower part of the stabilizer attached with corners and fittings on the longitudinal members in the central part, firmly attaching it to the fuselage. In place of the fracture lines to spar refers reinforced rib board. Compound stabilizer to the fuselage by means of two front and two rear docking ports.
The two-spar structures stabilizer butt joint butt nodes is performed on the central part of the longitudinal members, or by reinforced frames.
Horizontal tail on modern aircraft are often located on the tail fin of the aircraft and produces together with him T - shaped structure.
In some aircraft provided adjustment setting angle of the stabilizer in flight, making it possible to balance the aircraft in different embodiments, and its load changes alignment.
In many cases, the system can operate efficiently at takeoff - landing phases and during combat maneuvers.
Fig. Number 3 methods of use of the system changes in the cross «V» stabilizer during the dive and landing mode.
What is the role of any change in the position of the cross «V» stabilizer?
When the position of the stabilizer in the zero degree is normal flight at cruising speed. No big changes in direction, and without heels. At positive angles of attack rises stabilizer, which can significantly reduce the negative impact on the wing (as in the situation of zero degree). Eclipse wing shown in Figure number 3 the straight line and the positive position angle - the dotted line. The regulator circuit flow situation is also dotted. In this picture you can see a positive impact of the system. But we must not forget that, in turn, this improves the stability of the aircraft, and static at fighting maneuvers to reduce (in a "duck") and to increase the critical angle of attack (the aircraft normal scheme).
There are also cases of inappropriate use of the system. Such as when the dive and rise. Basically, it is not necessary due to the fact that the air that flows around the stabilizer does not obscure the wing, as it occurs during takeoff. But in the future, this system can be used to relieve pressure and reduce the potential for the stabilizer during takeoff in adverse conditions. And yet, the author would suggest using the layout of the aircraft, "Duck" in civil aviation, since this form is more promising, but less predictable under adverse conditions. And in fact, at the moment of knowledge of aviation should be considerably expanded and improved in comparison with the existing ones.
Now, the story of the "inaction" of the system at takeoff.
Features of "Duck" system, you can very well see in military aviation.
"Duck" The system proved itself in the early stages is very capricious, but then, after some time it paid off. A striking example of this is the fact that US military aircraft in the early stages of operation - scout YF -12 , Also known under the pseudonym " Black bird "Experienced serious damage even in the first stages of testing, at-speed run. At that time he was not just taking off the runway.
Aircraft YF-12, SA made the aerodynamic configuration "duck".
The second part of the report, but rather on the mechanism of the system.
Because the shape of the aircraft "duck" in this report, it is preferred that a large part of the text.
By linking this form of the airplane does not statically stable and largely due to (the flight characteristics) located in the rear wing of the fuselage. This system will help to overcome this anti sustainability. But all this is very relative stability as a stabilizer at different speeds for different flows about air. But may cause flutter at speeds exceeding
1000 km / h.
The author considers it necessary to establish a system of automatic change of angle position of the cross «V» stabilizer. Because when the pilot will maneuver, he had no time to follow the angle of the stabilizer. Another disadvantage of the system is a small set of changes in the cross angle «V» stabilizer. When different slope of the aircraft (roll) it is necessary to put a different angle. When tilting the pitch must also exhibit a different angle. In this section are presented limitations to use, but let's get back to positive effects, which is dedicated article.
The proposed scheme is to show their best performance in a dogfight and landing aircraft. You can use the system in adverse conditions such as in heavy wind and more rain. Even in the mountain climate and high altitude airfields. It's all about the likelihood of using the system, and now some of the conditional caution when using.
As the author thinks this system is possible to use and afterburner and at high speed (perhaps more 1000 km / h). There is a strict ban (only large passenger aircraft) on abrupt maneuvers with the release of the system changes in the stabilizer position angle. That is not due to warnings in the manual, and the most geometry and aircraft dynamics, as in the derivation of a large passenger aircraft of energetic maneuvers necessary to consider its moment of inertia and the forces opposed to the conclusion of the aircraft in steady or smooth horizontal flight.
A few words about the weight of the aircraft. Due to the fact that there will be some new set many different mechanisms and equipment that inevitably increase aircraft weight, and will increase the mass moment of inertia and the deterioration of the dynamic characteristics, but it is not a silver lining. All of the above points, you can easily compensate for the increase in the corresponding maneuvering characteristics. But this disadvantage can be eliminated quickly, make the most of the stabilizer angle of attack.
Fig. № 5 (Main, the first position of the main regulator. The nose of an airplane)
This is the basic position, and at a speed at a 1000 km / h it can be varied.
On the weight. As already mentioned, that the increase in aircraft weight would lead to negative consequences. To eliminate this defect is very easy to change the angle of attack of the stabilizer.
The figure number 6 presented as eliminated the lack of weight loss-making aircraft equipment. If not to go into the jungle of physics and aerodynamics, it can be very easy to explain this fact: with the change in the bearing surface angle of attack and change its lifting characteristics, we can calculate the change Lifting force, based on the polar plane.
The polar (wing aircraft, a glider) - A diagram depicting the relationship between the lift coefficient and frontal resistance wing (airplane, glider) at different angles of attack. The polar sometimes also called Lilienthal curve. If the polar build on the same scale, the vector from the origin to any point of the curve is equal to the total aerodynamic force coefficient for the angle of attack. The polar aircraft (airframe), in addition to the head-wing resistance, takes into account the drag of the other parts of the aircraft and the effect of interference. View polar depends on the geometric parameters of the wing (airplane, glider) and the similarity criteria (Reynolds number, Mach number). At high flight speeds at which impact compressibility of air, each number M has its own polar. Polar allows to determine the characteristic angles of attack (the aircraft airframe), namely the angle of attack of zero lift (the point where lift coefficient is zero), critical angle of attack (the point where the lift coefficient maximum), the most advantageous angle of attack (at the point of contact with the polar straight line drawn from the origin), the angles of attack with the same aerodynamic efficiency (at the points of intersection with the polar straight line drawn from the origin at an angle, the tangent of which is equal to the aerodynamic quality of the wing of the aircraft or glider).
Fig. № 6 (Increasing the weight of the aircraft and the elimination method).
Changing the angle of the stabilizer position helps increase the efficiency of aircraft and avoid unwanted diving moment and still make a big favor, after the effects of damage to the enemy missile. But the maintenance of the system is still quite complicated due to the fact that the system of changing the cross «V» stabilizer, provides a very complex and it is technically difficult to manufacture, it will require a significant level professionals for diagnosis and maintenance. In Russia and Ukraine today there are few such experts, but after the launch of the aircraft in a series of (possibly also at the test level), the author hopes for their support.
Most statically unstable system "Duck" on the pitch, but the system quickly eliminates this disadvantage and, therefore, it is safe to suggest to use this scheme for civil aviation, in order to reduce fuel consumption and relieve airspace airports. And in terms of maturing financial global crisis, it can be reduced and expensive for people and businesses - time. His treasure, and the need is now very confused of all.
Now about the social effect.
The social effect is the possible reduction of noise. For the exact solution you need to do complex account) decrease noise when breaking the sound barrier and overcoming a long distance on it. This is an important factor for all aircraft types, including the interceptors, and for civil aircraft, although this quality fighters do not have such an outstanding value, such as the effective scattering surface (to reduce radar visibility).
Technically, it was enough to create a hard, difficult but with all - to do his mechanization, ie attachment to the aircraft. This is the main objective of the investigations. And to create a thorough attachment takes years of experience and wealth of knowledge of relevant experts in aerodynamics.
stabilizer scheme is not very complicated, but not easy. Its main parts are the spar, ribs and stringers. They are combined, as in conventional aircraft. But fixing takes place by elongation of the spar. Is controlled hydraulically.
hydraulic drive - A system of different elements of the value of equipment that help control the aircraft.
In this sense - horizontal tail.
These elements are also referred to as hydraulics. The horizontal tail with variable cross «V» stipulates booster control, hydraulically. The equipment:
flying servo control it - it's control with hydraulic drive (primary), which is controlled by a hydraulic booster (booster).
Hydro power (Booster) is a hydraulic control system and consists of executing mechanism (ram), the reference element and the relationships between them.
Depending on the nature of the moving output member distinguish boosters translational and rotational mode of action.
The process of changing the angle of installation is done by hydraulic actuators, which will be located on the elongate member. Spars themselves secured with special screws, and are fixed to the ribs of power, perhaps to increase the reliability and flexibility in flight. By this story attached drawings stabilizer attachment to the fuselage scheme.
When creating this system, many parameters are still unknown, but it has been proposed total kontseptsіya use change in the cross angle of installation of the horizontal oapereniya, so the article is staged and research rather than applied. The controls are quite complex and varied.
By the action of the circuit of the invention.
It is very simple and is designed on the basis of the lever. The maximum angle of attack of the stabilizer is from -25 to + 25 degrees. This is not only a technical limitation is the maximum angle at which the horizontal tail wing is not obscure. Management will be a booster and the automatic assembly associated with the aircraft control stick. All work will be done appliances (special computer), which will be loaded with a variety of programs to control the stabilizer. But the novelty it is a special extension of the stabilizer. In this paper we propose to extend the stabilizer to achieve a new type of control - lever. About him the story below.
It will look kinematic system control circuit changes the cross «V» horizontal tail.
Fig. № 7. Kinematic stabilizer circuit with variable cross "V" stabilizer. explanation: 1 - handle control of the aircraft, 2 - automatic horizontal tail control system, 3 - actuator autopilot, 4 - booster (power), 5 - accumulator, 6 - axis changes in the cross «V» stabilizer, 7 - various provisions of the elevator.
It is assumed booster regulator control circuit, since it does not require additional time for balancing.
The control circuit or changing the cross «V» stabilizer is carried out hydraulically.
Fig. № 8. Name of parts of the system.
explanation: 1 - place position of the wing, 2 - fuselage, 3 - stabilizer, 4 - elongated spar, 5 - bracket, which is attached a support point of the spar, 6 - point spar support, 7 - accumulator, A mounting rod hydraulic drive to the bracket, 9 - upper cowl, 10 - bar hydraulic drive attachment, 11 - pipeline, 12 - the lower fairing, 13 - power.
Before you create the system the author thought about a lot of options and wants to tell you about some of them. The closest to this was a scheme with four hydraulic cylinders on the example of its author tells about the positive and negative aspects of this project. Since the control system will be a booster and the automatic, the system does not need to install another device is controlled in the cockpit, which is very important in combat maneuvering and possible dogfight.
Fig. Number 9 Scheme mounting rod to steering stabilizer spar.
1 - elongated spar, 2 - block mounting spar welded to the bracket, 3 - welded part of the spar, 4 - screw, 5 - locknut, 6 - washer.
Note: The spar, which is used in this design is in one piece with the bracket (it comes to the assembly in cooperation).
The construction of the second scheme is simpler and it is very important, because of this, it has less influence on the alignment, and more secure. The most likely factor fault in the air (due to damage or malfunction) could be a failure of one of the hydraulic actuators, which would lead to misalignment of the stabilizer and the (possible) plane crash. But the greatest positive effect is the synchronization of both stabilizers.
The greater weight of the first system could lead to a breach of the alignment. This would have led to a dive-effect, or pitching (depending on system deployment).
It involves the installation of the back of the elevator system, which will be guided by a propeller shaft.
Driving the action is very simplified: if the pilot moves the aircraft control stick away from you, then the system takes a special signal to the hydraulic actuator, and a stabilizer rises, and remains in this position until the pilot did not align the airplane in 0 + / -5 degrees pitch. Then the system aligns its position with respect to the pitch axis. When the pilot moves the aircraft control stick back, then the system does nothing. The system does nothing of the fact that the air flow does not obscure the wing in the second position. This is the simplest example. All the examples given above relate to the scheme of the aircraft "duck".
As it happens in the hydro - cylinder? In the first position of the reduced power is lowered to the bottom. In the second position with the hydraulic cylinder does nothing.
This design provides for a special unit of the stabilizer position changer, depending on the aircraft control stick.
We also consider the long-term use of this circuit system and fighters 5-th - 6-th generation and airplanes, which are currently still being developed.
The author allows himself to repeat that this development is unique and has no analogues in the world. Prospective use of this system in the form of airplanes "duck", because for them, and it was developed. But the majority of the world's aircraft is a representative of the classical aerodynamic configuration (shape), and you can use this system for them. As an example, considered Ukrainian aircraft
An -70, who is currently on static testing stage, and already may soon get a certificate of airworthiness.
The most common use of this system is expected to military and transport aircraft.
So spent in the article studies suggest that changes in cross-system «V» of the stabilizer should be considered as appropriate to use both in existing and in future models of aircraft, since it will provide increased reliability and profitability, and will also help to improve the management of aircraft.
Igor Makarov specifically for Avia.pro
- Aviation and literature
- A uniform
- Military aviation
- Civil Aviation
- Helpful information
- The calendar
- Aviation and music
- game air
- Plane Crash
- Aviation and cinema
- Educational establishments
- Author's articles
- Assemblies and units of air equipment
- The probability of catastrophes
- Online Timetable
- The calculation of the distance
Best in the world of aviation