Airworthiness (LH) It is a characteristic of the Armed Forces, which provided provided and implemented in its construction and aircraft performance parameters, principles and allows for safe flight under the anticipated conditions and established operating procedures.
Anticipated operating conditions include the area of settlement conditions specified airworthiness requirements and operating limitations and recommended modes of operation specified for this type of aircraft at the time of its certification.
Airworthiness Standards (UPG) - Is a set of requirements that provides a predetermined level of safety.
A prerequisite for admission to the operation of the Armed Forces is to meet its current UPG. The minimum requirements that must be fulfilled for admission to the operation of the Armed Forces are set forth in the Annexes to the Chicago Convention, the ICAO 1947 - Appendix 6 «Operation airships" Appendix 8 «Airworthiness" and Appendix 10 «Aeronautical Telecommunications."
Historically, that first full regulatory documents have become the norm strength aircraft beginning 1920-ies. The aim of these rules was to determine the load on the plane for all of its conditions on the ground and in flight. In the future, the question arose of creating complex rules that cover the requirements for flight performance, design and durability of aircraft, engines and all kinds of equipment. Such rules for civil aircraft have been established before World War II in England (BCAR), and eventually - in Europe (JAR) and the United States (FAR).
Creating a domestic airworthiness standards begins in the postwar years, with the rapid development of Aeroflot. The first standards for civilian aircraft (NLGS) were introduced into the 1967 1971 In the city enacted regulations NLGS-1, 1975 and issued certificates of airworthiness for the aircraft IL-86, Yak-42, An-28 on existing NLGS standards-2.
In the framework of the Standing Committee on civil aviation countries - CMEA based airworthiness 1984 was created unified standards of airworthiness of civil transport aircraft of countries - members of the CMEA (ENLGS), which entered into force in 1985, they apply to civil subsonic with the number of major aircraft gas turbine engines, and at least two are intended for the carriage of passengers or passengers, mail and cargo at the same time.
In ENLGS established requirements for airworthiness of aircraft, their engines and equipment, which served as the basis of mutual recognition of the states - members of the CMEA airworthiness certificates, volume control checks of airworthiness of aircraft, engines and equipment, which are produced and maintained by the countries concerned.
Nevertheless, at present not yet established common international airworthiness standards. In the US and most countries there are rules FAR-25 some national additions, while in the UK - BCAR (JAR-25). Comparative analysis NLGS-3, FAR and JAR shows that the levels of security that they establish, are practically equivalent. Regarding the specific requirements there is a difference between these UPG. The most significant difference is NLGS-3 from the FAR and JAR on the structure and location numbering requirements, making them difficult to understand abroad.
With 1990, in Ukraine and Russia started work on the approximation of the Norms UPG US and Western Europe, on the structure and content requirements with a view to ensuring the competitiveness of domestic aircraft. Applicable Standards of Airworthiness transport category airplanes are part 25 Aviation Regulations (AP-25). They take into account requirements NLGS-3, built on the structure adopted for the FAR-25, and contains amendments to the FAR-25. Numbering parts AP-25 similar to the numbering of the relevant parts FAR. Rules AP-25 operate in Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and other CIS countries.
Airworthiness standards specify the requirements for functional systems of the Armed Forces, which are derived from an analysis of their impact on flight safety:
functional systems should be virtually fail-proof as failures lead to an emergency or disaster, and their reservations should ensure continued safe flight after two consecutive failures;
structurally functional system of the Armed Forces should be performed so that the crew could detect failures in a timely manner, to prevent its negative effects and implement flight with a failed component or system;
functional system should be simple to operate, to be able to switch to any operating mode, provided instruction on flight operations, and be equipped with alarms and controls its performance;
controls the functional efficiency of the system or its components are built into the design of aircraft should not reduce the functional reliability of the system and its components;
design a functional system with elements of its control and may reduce to a minimum the possibility of making mistakes in the process of flight operations and during maintenance.
Equally important is an integrated approach to the analysis of interference of all functional systems of the aircraft in the expected operating conditions, ie. E. To the flight characteristics, stability and controllability of the aircraft. The requirements of this trend are: range of speeds; Software takeoff, en route, landing and approach; longitudinal and lateral stability and control; safety during flight at high angles of attack, and in the event of special situations.
Requirements NLGS to flight characteristics largely determine the limits on the use of aircraft as a landing characteristics, and on the range of acceptable speeds and altitudes. This allows to formulate specific requirements for the aircraft and its maintenance documentation. In particular,the strength requirements set load on the aircraft and its main parts, a special case of loading, structural stiffness, temperature durability, fatigue conditions.
Thus UPG except claims which define the basic principles airworthiness contain a significant amount of specific requirements for the flight characteristics, to motors and other functional systems and equipment. They are based on the experience of creating, testing and operation of aircraft.
Regarding the design features of the Sun (its systems and assemblies) UPG establish requirements for management systems, landing gear and brakes, hydraulic and pneumatic systems, passenger cabin and cargo compartment, hermetically sealed cabin, air conditioning system, airborne flight information registration, rescue equipment , protect aircraft from lightning, maintainability, materials and manufacturing technology. Similar requirements apply to propulsion - structural elements of the engine, its systems and units, air intake systems and exhaust devices, fire protection powerplant, systems management and regulation, fuel, lubrication, cooling systems, and others.
UPG requirements apply to on-board equipment installed on the aircraft to determine its location in flight piloting security, air traffic control, to ensure internal and external communications and electricity, as well as to monitor the operation of the power plant.
Aircraft equipment must be designed, constructed and installed so as to satisfy the following requirements:
in the expected conditions of flight equipment must perform all the functions for the flight according to the flight manual (AFM);
necessary function of the equipment must be provided under external influences (overload, vibration, temperature, etc.) that may arise on the plane during its operation;
in the event of failure of functional systems, where there may be a special situation, should provide the controls and indicators of their condition;
to check the functioning of the equipment in its construction is necessary to provide means of control performance;
Functional systems that consume, generate, transform and distribute electricity should not create in their simultaneous operation of such electromagnetic obstacles that would lead to the malfunction, or the emergence of special situations.
The layout of the cab should provide a comfortable accommodation of all crew members, taking into account the anthropometric requirements, and the ability to effectively perform functional duties on the flight modes, provided the Flight Manual.
An analysis of the structure of the fleet, which is in the register of the State Civil Aviation Administration, it can be concluded that one of the main problems of maintaining their airworthiness is the availability of non-renewable, aging fleet of airplanes and helicopters that do not meet new international requirements.
Safety and the problem of an aging aircraft fleet
We give an overall assessment of the situation, which deals with the maintenance of airworthiness and modernization.
The economic situation in Ukraine and other CIS countries, as well as the structural changes in industry and transport have led to negative consequences in the development of civil aviation, which are:
a sharp decline in traffic volumes; changes in the structure of demand for air transport, in particular, curtailment of transportation inside the country;
the presence of an aging fleet, which is underutilized;
decreased attention to airline safety;
overall reduction in the level of safety;
progressive mismatch aging fleet international requirements that are constantly changing.
Such large aircraft states like the United States and Russia, have developed national programs that determine the strategy for controlling the composition and condition of the fleet of aircraft. In 1999 the FAS Russia prepared the document "System of airworthiness of civil aircraft of Russia." The main purpose of the system - ensuring the most efficient use of the existing fleet of aging Sun civil aviation while maintaining a given level of safety. A similar system is in 1980-ies developed in the United States. The purpose of these systems is:
streamlining and systematic analysis of issues relating to resources and technology implementation the main goal - the efficient use of the sun while providing a given level of safety;
creation and development of a national system of maintenance of airworthiness of civil aviation;
strategy formation decommissioning aging sun and recharge the new park;
creation of a system for monitoring the technical condition of the aircraft fleet types and instances, as well as the level of preparedness of personnel;
development of financial and material support measures to maintain airworthiness and safety.
The development of national programs is based on previous experience and under such regulations ICAO, as the Doc 9642-AN / 341 «Handbook for the Conservation of LH" Doc 8335-AN / 879 «Handbook of Procedures for Operations Inspection, Certification and Continued Surveillance" Appendix 8 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation "airworthiness" addition to Annex 8 et al., as well as the regulations of other states (JAR-OPS, JAR-M, JAR-66, JAR-145, FAR / JAR-1, FAR- 39, FAR-43, FAR / JAR-143, FAR-147 et al.).
Russian program included the development of a number of documents (Federal Aviation Regulations - FAP), which constitute the legal framework of the maintenance of LH: FAP-1 «Terms and Definitions"; FAP-11 «Procedures for the development and changes in the federalAviation Regulations "; FAP-39 «Airworthiness Directives"; FAP-43 «General rules of technical operation and maintenance"; FAP-65 «Rules of preparation and certification of experts on the technical operation and maintenance of aircraft"; FAP-EX "Rules of Operation"; FAP- 143 «Rules of ground training and certification of trainers"; FAP-145 «Organization for the maintenance and repair of civil aircraft. Requirements for certification rules. "
The following criteria, the current state of the civil aviation fleet, are stochastic in nature. They are presented as indicators of the technical condition of the aircraft type, though they can easily be formulated in terms of value.
These indicators can be used as performance criteria for tasks (actions) on ensuring airworthiness in service and safety.
- Aviation and literature
- A uniform
- Military aviation
- Civil Aviation
- Helpful information
- The calendar
- Aviation and music
- game air
- Plane Crash
- Aviation and cinema
- Educational establishments
- Author's articles
- Assemblies and units of air equipment
- The probability of catastrophes
- Online Timetable
- The calculation of the distance
Best in the world of aviation