Fighter-14. Photo. Characteristics. Story.
And-14 - Soviet fighter aircraft, designed for the type of speed. This is the second post And-4 aircraft, which has created a design team of Pavel Sukhoi. General Designer Department of aircraft at the time was AN Tupolev
The first flight took place in 1933 year. The entered serial production and modification of its modified bis-14. Because after a short period of time I went faster and cheaper to manufacture and fighter-16 Polikarpov, Sukhovsky-14 fighter and had to be removed from production. Unable to fully realize small series: 50 of the planned world saw only 18 copies. The design-14 and has been applied a number of new design and technological solutions, in order to do not apply to aircraft of the USSR.
And-14 well - experienced
In November 1928, the aircraft designer Polikarpov N. was arrested on charges of counter-revolutionary activities. Court, he was sentenced to death. But the death penalty is not the Soviet leadership decided to perform: at that time was a tough deficit talented aircraft designers. N. Polikarpov continued to work on the design of aircraft in the CDB-39 OGPU, which was located within the Butyrka prison in Moscow.
It was here in 1930 year N. Polikarpov, together with DP Grigorovich created biplane and-5, which was put into production and placed on the Air Force Red Army.
In 1931 the death penalty was replaced by a reference to the aircraft designer 10 years in the camps. However, after the demonstration-5 departure and before the first persons of the state Polikarpov amnestied.
During the design and P. Sukhoi fighter-14 shoulders N. Polikarpov laid AGOS TsAGI in the development and well-14. After two years of work in the ASSC, he was transferred to the Aviation Plant № 39, which was the chief designer SV Ilyushin. Later in the walls of this institution will construct N. Polikarpov fighter I-16, which will be the main competitor and Sukhovsky-14.
And-14 - experienced
Resolution on the development of high-speed single-metal fighter design team under the leadership of P. Sukhoi received in 1932 year. Design of the aircraft was carried out in 1933, with assistance from Tupolev.
The novelty of the design decisions was retractable landing gear during flight, oil amortization chassis, brake wheels. Also, we have focused on tsentralnozakrytom canopy pilot, smooth skin of the fuselage and wings. The prototype fighter-14 and collected in the Moscow aircraft factory experimental designs, which then led AA Osipov. Purge the aircraft carried out at TsAGI.
In the first instance it was installed engine "Bristol-Merkur" power 500 hp
Total vehicle received the designation and-14 («fourteenth Fighter"), its other name - ANT-31 (initials of Andrei Tupolev).
First off on the I-14 27.05.1933 was made a test pilot V. Buchholz in Moscow at the Central Airport.
Shortcomings in the assembly persists in less than a year, and in the winter of 1933 years began to check combat system. For this there were two and-14, each with its own type of weapons. The first version was a machine-gun PV-1 7,62 mm caliber and one gun APK-37 under the wings. In the second version of the machine gun PV installed 2-1 (7,62 mm), 2 gun ShVAK, 4 bomb racks A-1.
The experimental aircraft was traced transitional structures lining: the fuselage keel were smooth, and the rest of the wing and tail - corrugated aluminum.
In the middle of 1934 year trial exposed a second prototype, which was powered by "Wright Cyclone-F2» (640 hp) and armed with two guns had APK-37 and one machine gun PV-1. State tests of this modification carried out a test pilot Alexander Filin. It took this option as a basis for mass production.
And bis-14 - Serial
All trim production series made smooth gear placed under the sides of the fuselage, the wing has been cleaned by the rotation of the side consoles.
First cabin was designed completely closed, sliding back, but after the comments of pilots in its design have been changed. Booth made a discovery, and it's impact on the reduction of the maximum speed of the aircraft due to the reduction indicator streamlining air.
The design used the serial American motor M-25 firm "Wright", the work which was difficult to get used to the Soviet pilots. At the armed fighters were 2-11 APC cannon caliber 45 2 mm gun ShKAS.
Unfortunately, the production capacity was not sufficient, in order to fully replicate the design of the prototype. The quality of series production was worse than expected, which affected the flight characteristics of the aircraft.
After the appearance of fighter I-16, which issued a CB Polikarpov from Sukhovsky and-14 refused. And-16 equipped with almost the same power plant, but has compared to its predecessor the best performance characteristics.
The plant P. Sukhoi worked on assembling the production units and 55-14. Of these, only 18 they have been fully completed and handed over weapons. These aircraft were designated 18-14 bis and the rest remained unfinished.
Fuselage-14 made by type monocoque chetyrehlonzheronnoy design, which is integral with the center section. Fuselage skin consisted of sheet thickness duralumin 0,5 mm. Braces ribs, the walls of the center-wing spar and were made of duralumin pipes, shelves longerons - from chrome-molybdenum tubing. Wing cantilever type of center-folded and the two consoles. The structure of the frame of the wing spar consisted of two, six major and five additional ribs. The wing skin that was 0,5 mm countersunk riveting techniques involved. It is also used in the construction of fighter flaps. The kit includes the main landing gear wheel disc brakes. Amortization type chassis - butyric air, performed manually from the cockpit. Crutch had a cable control.
The characteristics of the aircraft and-14
|Wing area, m2||16.93|
|Weight, kg empty plane||1169|
|Weight, kg normal take-off||1540|
|engine's type||PD M 1-25 (Wright R-1820 Cyclone-F3)|
|Power, hp||X 1 712|
|The maximum speed, km / h near the ground||357|
|The maximum speed, km / h at an altitude of||449|
|Cruising speed, km / h||343|
|Practical range, km||600|
|Rate of climb, m / min||769|
|Practical ceiling, m||9420|
|Armament:||Two (four) 7.62-mm machine gun PV-1|
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