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History of ordinary things: aviation watches and more ...
How many things around us that have become so familiar that we do not even imagine that once people got along without them? Take a look around. Look at these things. A pencil, a kettle with a spout .... The list can be very long. After someone also once thought of before the invention of these things that seem to us simply commonplace ...
In aviation, as well as in the life around us, there are things that have appeared recently (by historical standards, of course). Now impossible to control any, even the most simple aircraft without flight data monitoring devices. There is no need to list them all, the simplest and oldest of them are pointers speed and altitude.
A lot of reading about the first steps of aviation, I noticed how little attention is paid to this issue, the subject devices that are equipped with the first, airplanes, machines heavier than air is already equipped with engines.
It is quite clear that the first devices were not enough, they were simple (not primitive, as is customary to say that is simple), but, nevertheless, for him to navigate in space and fly.
Originally I planned to write only about the appearance of the first aircraft hours. To be precise, not those that are on each instrument panel in the plane, but simply watches. Their appearance, we too are obliged to aviation. Yes, yes, men's watches at the beginning of the XX century there was virtually no, or rather they were not in fashion for men and women wristwatch bracelets complained. And only thanks to the aviation pioneer Louis Bleriot and Alberto Santos-Dumont, the famous clock at home began to produce watches men's watches.
But when I became closely involved in this subject, it turned out that the information on the first aircraft instruments too little. More precisely it is practically non-existent. So what of the equipment was on the first airplanes? I would like to look into the cockpit of the first aircraft.
The first thing that comes to mind when one thinks about the equipment of the first aircraft cabin is a regular compass. Although, at the time when the plane was only jumps on race fields need of a compass, of course it was not. Only when they started to make flights along the first routes, flights with a trajectory different from a straight line, could need a compass. And when you consider the height at which the flights need a compass is not so obvious. Landmark was enough to determine its location. Even in 30-ies some reckless drivers recovered their orientation on the ground, reading the names of the railway stations, and referring to the map, determined by their position.
With the clock is also clearly not all as it would seem. First-flying jumps occurred, usually at a large gathering of people, and, of course, note the time of the jump could anyone. Including officials who are often invited to fix the fact of flight. The exception is, except that only afraid of all Bratya Rayt, who flew in the middle of nowhere, trying not to attract undue attention to his flight, both the press and onlookers, not to mention about officials.
Therefore, in Europe, in France, we were absolutely certain flight championship on machines heavier than air to an internal combustion engine, the eccentric and wealthy Brazilian Santos-Dumont. About the names of the Wright brothers overseas one to 1908 years and never heard of.
Consequently, neither the clock nor a compass were not essentials on board an airplane. What then?
Apparently, the first device that appeared armed with aeronauts was just statoscope, or if easier - aneroid barometer. That is a simple barometer that instead of atmospheric pressure scale has a scale calibrated in height. After balloons, airships and balloons, the device has migrated into the first airplane cabin.
A talented French hydraulic engineer Henri Pitot, even in 1732, the measured flow rate of the Seine, and opened a link between the static and dynamic pressure of a moving fluid. He further found that the difference between static and dynamic pressure is proportional to the square of the fluid velocity. Next - business equipment, Henri Pitot invents a device for measuring fluid velocity, now worldwide known as the "pitometer.
Now in modern receivers, the air pressure, the Pitot tube is used as part of the Prandtl tube (So named after the German hydrodynamics Lyudviga Prandtlya). Sometimes even today you can hear someone wanting to show off, "aviation" terms, with a LDPE, she calls him a Pitot tube. So, to be precise it is not the Pitot tube, namely the Prandtl tube, which has not only the main inlet directed upstream, but is also small holes around the main channel, and in no way associated with him. This static pressure receivers. The difference between the total pressure and static pressure, according to the Bernoulli law, and is a dynamic pressure and can be measured with a manometer.
Why am I all that? Pressures on the principle of measuring work altimeters and pointers speed of modern aircraft and helicopters. It is well known HP-10-350 and FF, which are probably all over that now flies (I do not take, of course, modern jet aircraft).
But, despite the evidence of use and the Prandtl tube, and the law of Bernoulli us, after so many years, probably at the dawn of aviation it was not so obvious. And because even the cabin fighter during World War I, not burdened devices. More precisely, in addition to all of the same barometric altimeter, their simply is not there. There is a clock and compass, and the horizontal location schlyupochny! Can you imagine it? In the narrow and cramped cockpit.
That's cabin looked WWI fighter
And now let me go back yet to the history of the clock, the heroes of the pioneer aviators Louis Bleriot and the Brazilian Santos Dumont.
French, Brazilian-born Alberto Santos-Dumont.
Rich and eksentrichny Alberto Santos-Dumont, was a favorite not only of Paris, but, perhaps, the whole of France. In an era of rapid development of technology, young, handsome, rich, Alberto, spending money not on secular entertainment, and put them in their inventions, in research and development of technological innovations of the time: motorcycles, cars, but especially to the development of aeronautics and aeronautics. And often the Parisians, summer morning could witness such a picture: Alberto exquisitely dressed elegantly "parked" his airship from the Eiffel Tower, and went down with him to breakfast in the restaurant on one of the levels.
Clock Cartier de Santos produced in our time.
Santos-Dumont was well received in all the noble houses of Paris, all the banking houses and of course the well-known Lui Karte. Louis, a close friend of the aviator, the grandson of the founder of the famous House of Cartier (Cartier) and produced at the request of Alberto clock, which is attached to the wrist by means of a leather strap. Santos Dumont explained friend that in flight, when both hands are constantly busy, quite thoughtfully take the usual hours of pocket vest. Hours are called Santos, it was a good marketing move, and soon, the clock began to disperse huge parties. It should be noted that the clock Santos de Cartier and to this day are very popular among fans of discreet luxury and classics, and their cost ranges from 800 000 to two to three million rubles.
Louis Bleriot before the flight across the English Channel
The following story is connected with the name of another aviation pioneer Louis Bleriot. Of course, everyone knows that the history of the most dovydumannye stories eventually overgrown with a number of parts and details. But, nevertheless, they do not become from it less than entertaining.
So, famous already by the time the French aviator prepares to fly across the Channel in its narrowest spot (about 40 km). His flight is not quite a sports or advertising. The fact is that in the summer 1909, the newspaper «Daily Mail» announced a solid reward (25000 francs) to the aviator who first crosses the Strait in the air. Bleriot when registering ahead another equally known pilot Hubert Latham. But everything starts Latham were unsuccessful, the wind and rain, the usual in these places did not give a chance to the famous pilot. Finally one of the attempts was successful, and Latham have almost reached the coast of Dover, when the engine of his plane stalled completely. Pilot caught sailors the Coast Guard.
On board the plane Bleriot XI devices did not exist. The intrigue of all the flight is still in the aircraft engine. Few people know that the three-cylinder engine Alessandro Anzani had gas adjustment! Ie have only one mode of operation!
4 41 hours minute 25 1909 year in July, the pilot was awakened with the news that over the Strait of complete calm. After 33 minutes (according to other sources through 37 minutes) after the seemingly endless flight Bleriot XI hard flops podlamyvaya chassis field near Dover lock.
At Louis Bleriot was just 40 minutes of engine time! Flying an airplane was at the limit of the stock fuel. Any sufficiently strong headwind ... and Bleriot aircraft to stop the engine would have fell into the waters of the bay. Louis's right calculated as for timing, on the sleeve of his jumpsuit adorned clock on the strap then little-known company Zenith.
Those same hours Zenith which Louis Bleriot flew
"I am very pleased with my watch Zenith, which I usually use, and vividly recommend them to anyone who cares about accuracy!"
Now it is difficult to establish whether there was a contract pilot with the watch company Zenith, but the phrase has bypassed all newspapers of the world. firm case quickly went up the hill, and she began to produce in addition to hours and on-board equipment for aircraft. And Louis Bleriot, in addition to world-wide fame and popularity was due to him 25 000 francs into the bargain.
A man received a wristwatch that after these major events have become part of the image of a business person. Until that time, watches were produced as a piece of jewelry for the women in the form of a bracelet. However, it should be noted that by the early 1900-ies, they were not very popular among the finest Parisian. This was due Bang fashion for long, puffed sleeves to the wrist blouses. Hours there was no place. The windows of the famous jewelry house Cartier pylilas party ladies' bracelet watch with jewelry. Please Alberto Santos-Dumont came not be more appropriate! Conservative men are not immediately followed by a fashion trend, and the first to wear a wristwatch, even in the men's version, it has become all the same women. A male subsequently showed off even pair hours: one on the traditional chain breguette pocket in vest - a sign of affluence and wealth. The other on the hand, a sign of following fashion trends, the trend is now customary to say.
That's right, aircraft had (not the first and not the last time) on our daily lives.
Rare photos and a rare event: Alberto Santos-Dumont (seated right) as a passenger on an airplane Louis Bleriot (seated left)
P "P" SЏ avia.pro material has been prepared Valery Smirnov
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