Safety (BP) It is an integrated feature of air transport and aerial work, which determines the ability to operate without the threat to life and health.
Ensuring the safety of civil aircraft - A complex problem, which is solved by the joint efforts of civil aircraft manufacturers and operators. The level of safety is determined by the probability that the flight will not have such a special situation as a disaster.
A special situation (OS) may occur in flight as a result of the adverse impact of individual factors or their combination and reduce the level of safety. These factors include: failures and malfunctions of individual elements of functional systems; the impact of adverse external conditions; deficiencies in ground support mission; errors and improper use of functional systems and piloting techniques; manifestations of adverse features aerodynamics and strength of the Armed Forces.
According to the degree of danger exceptions are divided into complication of flight conditions, complex, emergency and catastrophic situations.
The increasing complexity of flight conditions (PDL) characterized by a slight increase in psycho-physiological stress on the crew, or slightly reduced stability and handling or flight characteristics. Complication flight conditions does not lead to the need for immediate, or unexpected changes in the flight plan, and does not interfere with its favorable termination, except in cases specified in the flight manual.
Difficult situation (SS) It characterized by a significant increase in psycho-physiological stress on the crew or the significant deterioration of stability and controllability of a flightcharacteristics. This is also the case where one or more flight parameters are outside the operating limitations, but without reaching the limit constraints and design conditions.
To prevent the difficult situation in an emergency or catastrophic, need timely and correct actions of the crew, including the immediate change of plan, profile or flight mode.
Emergency (AC) characterized by a significant increase in psycho-physiological stress on the crew, the deterioration of flight characteristics, stability and controllability, and leads to the achievement of (excess) limit restrictions and settlement conditions.
Preventing the transition to a catastrophic emergency requires high professional skills of the crew.
The catastrophic situation (COP) - It is a condition in which prevent the loss of life is almost impossible.
As the incidence of special situations are divided into repetitive, moderately likely, unlikely, highly unlikely, and almost unbelievable.
Estimates To quantify the likelihood of particular situations using probabilities that refer to, or one hour of flight, or to a single flight, depending on the nature of the event in question: for recurring situations - more than 10 3; for moderately likely - 10 ~ M0 5; for the unlikely - 10 ~ 5-10 7; for extremely unlikely - 10 7- 10-9; for almost incredible - at least 10 ~ 9.
Depending on the situation, discussed the effects of classified accidents and incidents.
ACCIDENT (AP) called the event associated with the use of aircraft. It comes from the time when a man steppedon board the aircraft with the intention to carry out the flight and the time when all the people who were on board, had left him. AP causes a disturbance of the normal operation of aircraft crew service management and operations, as well as the influence of the external environment, as a result came one of the following cases:
at least one person who was on board lost their lives or suffered damage to his health from which death occurred during 30 days from the date of the accident;
Sun has been damaged airframe or power elements landed on the area, the evacuation of which is technically impossible or impractical;
at least one person who was on board, disappeared without a trace and the official search has ended.
By AP does not include such events: the death of a man who was on board the aircraft, as a result of deliberate or negligent actions of the victim or other people, but not related to the operation of the aircraft;
the death of a person, without permission penetrated on board the Sun and hiding outside the areas where open access to passengers and crew members;
localized damage to the engine, propeller, do not force the airframe, main and tail rotors and fairings, glass, antennas, tires and braking means the chassis if the damage does not violate sheathe structural strength.
Depending on the degree of sun damage and the severity of the consequences, the AP divided into catastrophe and AP without casualties.
Catastrophe - Is the AP with the loss of human life, which led to the death or disappearance without trace of people from among those on board aircraft if they received injury fatalities during their stay on board the aircraft, direct collision with any part of the Armed Forces (including with that which is separated from the sun) and direct exposure to jet blast, as well as the complete disappearance of the aircraft.
The aircraft is considered to have disappeared without a trace when the official search has been terminated and has not been located elements of its design. The decision to terminate the search, the missing sun takes Plenipotentiaryauthority of the State to investigate the accident, the territory of which it happened.
It also includes disaster deaths someone from among the persons who were on board during their emergency evacuation aircraft.
Injuries as a result of which over 30 days from the date of the accident came death, classified as bodily injury resulting in death.
AP without casualties is not related to the death of people who were on board. This incident, in which the sun was damaged power elements of the airframe or landed on the area, the evacuation of which is technically impossible or impractical.
Incident - Associated with the use of the sun incident that happened from the time when a person stepped on board with the intention to carry out flight until such time when all the people who were on board, left the aircraft. The incident is determined by deviations from the normal operation of aircraft crew service management and operations, as well as the influence of the environment on safety.
Serious incident It is associated with the occurrence of factors that created a real threat to flight safety. It does not end with the aviation accident due to high professionalism of the crew or the aircraft personnel engaged in air traffic control, or as a result of a favorable combination of circumstances.
The collision of two or more of the Sun classified for each of them separately in accordance with the actions resulting from the effects of a collision. If the sun has received additional damage due to the influence of the external environment or during an evacuation, the event is classified with the additional damage.
Classification of other accidents, not on wearing to the AP and the incidents that took place during the use of the Armed Forces, as well as in the process of maintenance, storage and repair, determined by regulations. This category includes emergencies and sun damage on the ground.
Accident (PE) - is associated with the operation of the Sun event which occurred during one of these effects:
death or bodily injury fatalities obtained by any person during his stay on board the aircraft as a result of deliberate or negligent actions of the victim or other persons;
death or personal injury with lethal people who were hiding in areas where access is prohibited passengers and crew;
the death of the crew members or passengers through adverse environmental effects after downing sun outside the airport;
death or bodily injury of fatal man who was out of the sun, through direct contact with the sun, its elements or gas jet;
destruction or damage of the sun on the earth, which led to the stability of the design or to deterioration of performance, as a result of natural disaster or violation of service technology, rules of storage and transportation;
abduction aircraft, which was on the ground or in flight, or capture it with the aim of stealing;
unauthorized flight crew, its individual members or other officials, regardless of the consequences.
Sun damage on the ground (PVA) - An event associated with the service, storage and transportation of the aircraft in which it caused damage without disturbing the structural strength and without degradation of performance, the elimination of which is possible in the operating conditions.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE SAFETY
On safety affects a large number of factors that determine the quality of functioning of the PBX.
One factor is considered an action, event, condition or circumstance, the presence or absence of which increases or decreases the probability of a favorable termination of the flight. Technical and organizational complexity of the ATC, a large number of aviation personnel services, participating in the organization, preparation, implementation and maintenance operations, as well as the operation of the Armed Forces in a wide range of weather and climatic conditions give rise to a significant number of components that affect the final result of the flight. Given the complexity and branching PBX, to list all the factors is practically impossible. The degree of detail determined by the concretization of the conditions of the system and the nature of their influence on the occurrence of potential hazards to flight.
Effects on safety can be divided into the system (components, determined by internal properties ATC) and non-system (environmental factors). This division is conditional, since the state of the environment is controlled by the relevant services and crews using special hardware. In this case, the sun should not fall off-design conditions of the environment.
Due to the fact that the exchange is a complex of poly-ergatic system, each element of which has human and machine units can identify common groups of factors which affect the reliability of operation of these elements, ie. e. on safety. These include: training and discipline of aviation personnel; psychophysiological state operators; Organization of the system (service); technical equipment of each subsystem and reliability of technical equipment; quality of technical standards, which regulates flight, technical operation, air navigation systems and flight software.
Factors that appear to accidents and incidents: Skill level command and managers, ATC, crew and aviation engineering service; the state of logistics services (weather, airfield, electric lighting, the organization of transport, fuels and lubricants); the right decision; observance of production technology; quality of service. This also includes elements of functional systems failures and conditions related to human activities disabilities aviation technology and the influence of the external environment.
Analysis of causes or incidents AP indicates that in most cases the development AP events occur which successively complicate the situation in flight. According to statistics, more than 70% AP due to the appearance in flight set of adverse factors. As a rule, it is a combination of several factors related to the activities of the crew, the functional efficiency of the sun and environmental conditions. An illustration of this is - the functional efficiency of the Armed Forces; By functional activity of the crew; Z - environmental conditions. Particular flight point is determined by the position on the surface S. The surface S divides the whole space into two subsets. The inner space corresponds to safety and external - an emergency or disaster. Emergency and catastrophic situations can arise if any factor has gone beyond the specified limits, or all of the factors are within acceptable limits, but their unfavorable combination leads to an emergency or disaster.
The process of developing a negative phenomenon, which ends the accident in most cases may be several reasons for that seriescomplicate the situation and lead to an accident.
If we consider the sequence of an adverse event, it is possible to identify the main, immediate and related causes. The main reason is that in this situation creates a potential possibility of the AP, and direct and related - a reason to create real conditions for the conversion of possibility into reality. So close is the reason that leads to the AP. Obviously, it is the consequence of the main reasons. Carriers main reasons for AP - a defect inherent in the design of the sun during its creation or production, imperfect system of professional training of aviation personnel, shortcomings in the organization of work of all parts of the air transport system, the shortcomings of technical standards and others.
The emergence of related reasons may be due to the lack of efficiency of the crew to address the consequences of a dangerous situation or the imposition of unfavorable external conditions for the development of the situation, which complicates the work of the crew. Depending on the situation related reason may act as direct. Eliminating direct and associated causes of the accident reduces the likelihood of their recurrence, but does not exclude the possibility of a complex emergency or disaster because of the main reason.
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