The great merit of the Soviet aircraft building 40-ies assigned TU-4, copied from an American bomber B-29. But the aircraft with a range of 6000 km to carry out combat missions only in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. But the plans of the Soviet Union was to create a long-range strategic bomber capable of reaching the United States and back.
This proposal was received by A. Tupolev Design Bureau in connection with the possibility of war with the Americans and the construction of the atomic bomb in the USSR. We needed a carrier. The first step towards this plane was Tu-80. Work began in 1948 year. It was a deep modernization of the Tu-4 a reworked layout, removing shortcomings in the fuselage, reinforced arms and improved aerodynamics.
Bomber "Eighties" was a four-midwing keel with a comb, a large fin and elongated trapezoidal wing. A cross-beam of the wing is formed by a double bend in the chord plane. The fuselage of circular cross-section. Tricycle landing gear with a nose strut. In comparison with the base model we changed the front pressurized cabin, taking advantage of experience with the design of the Tu-70. With this visibility for the pilots is much improved. Himself fuselage lengthened to 4 meters together with the cargo bay. Nomenclature bomb weapons have also increased, and changed the defensive weapons (guns B-20 on the HP-23).
Engineers conducted a range of activities to improve the aerodynamics of speakers units (infantry units and fairings RLS). Radar bombsight "Cobalt" finalized mounted prefix "Cesium". As a result, the installation was renamed "Rubidium". Instead protivoobledeniteley socks wing "Goodrich" installed more efficient heating. In 15% increased fuel capacity. The plan is expected to be installed on the aircraft are REO: radio navigation aids "Meridian" and "mainland" finder ARK-5, identification system "Barium" and "magnesium", shooting radar sight "Cadmium" night aerofotoaparat NAFA-3S and radio RSB- 5.
Place the radio operator was organized in front of the cabin, eventually simplify the interaction of the whole crew. The navigator-bombardier-navigator and navigator were placed at the head of aircraft. Updated speed layout sharper bow has been extended by three meters, which in turn has corrected many flaws review of the basic Tu-4.
Designers at project paid much attention to improve the aerodynamics of the aircraft. All four gondolas Tu-80 1,9 decreased by m2. Upper front tower is completely removed, and the upper and lower installation drowned in the fuselage due to the small reduction of the angles of fire. Instead of round elliptical blisters sighting made side posts, and just built into the fuselage. Radar antenna "Cobalt" installed in the fairing under the forward cabin. This will further minimize aerodynamic drag. During the study found that "petal" review of the approach to conducting a mission. As a result, even for many different classes of aircraft fuselage installed such reviews.
To improve the aerodynamics were applied and other changes. Reduce the angle of the transverse V-shaped wing, extended his sock, increased the scope of the flaps. Construct a new ending and stabilizer wing, new locks on the fuselage joints, have increased the area of the keel and rudder trim. The power plant was at the heart of 4 modified engine AL-73TKFN with takeoff power 2720 hp and nominal - 2360 hp Thanks to a special injection engines were more economical. In sum, improved aerodynamics, the increased volume of the fuel tank modified by the installation of new engines and propellers AV 16U turned achieve an increase in flight range on 30-35% (up to 8200 km) than the base model Tu-4.
Much attention was taken defensive weapons modernization Tu-80. Instead of guns B-20 20 mm caliber installed NA-23 23 mm caliber with a larger second volley of each tower. Also increased the volume of the bomb bay. The front was lengthened to 380 mm, rear - on 400 mm. This succeeded in diversifying the range bombs. It is now possible to install in the internal bomb FAB-9000.
Also changed and the target aircraft equipment. On Tu-80 appeared a completely new thermal anti-icing system. She has worked in the warm air, which appeared due to special kerosene stoves. Then such a system for deicing aircraft used in virtually all projects OKB. Changes only source of heat.
Officially took up rebuild of the old Tu-4 a new Tu-80 1948 year in July. And exactly one year had planned to pass it on state tests. Draft project was completed in November and a few months later started production of working drawings. Draft project together with the ready-made layout of the Tu-80 submitted for verification commission. However, it was delayed due to some arrangements are not satisfied with the representatives of the Air Force. Only at the end 1949, it was decided to take the plane.
In parallel, the Commission carried out a verification of the construction of the prototype. Therefore, by the end of the year 49 OP was ready. However, in September, the Design Bureau received information about inappropriate bomber for the Red Army. The reason was the lack of range of the aircraft. As a result, they concluded that the state tests for the plane will not allow. Tupolev still insisted on continuing the work, and the first of December piloted by F. Opadchiy aircraft first took to the sky. Then Tu-80 transferred to LII, where test pilot Alexander Yefimov has made it 30 test flights (29 5 hours, minutes).
Tu-80 had a big disadvantage compared to the baseline Tu-4. During the subsequent flight tests we have noticed that the alignment of the aircraft moved forward and shoulders management mechanisms are the same. Attempted compensation, decided to increase the control surfaces. But the attempt failed, so the tail of the aircraft established a weight 900 kg.
There have also been minor changes in the presence of bomb armament and equipment. A sad end to a promising aircraft Tu-80 occurred at a military firing range as a target. But though the aircraft did not become a production model, but was a unique stage for the transition to Tu-85, who had a range 11 000-13 000 km.
|Wing area, m2||167.00|
|Fuel kg||to 16500|
|engine's type||4 PD AL-73TKFN|
|flight||X 4 2000|
|takeoff||X 4 2400|
|Maximum speed km / h|
|near the ground||428|
|Practical range, km||7000|
|Practical ceiling, m||11200|
|Armament:||to 12000 kg bombs|
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