The aircraft Tupolev TB-3 (ANT-6). A photo. History. Characteristics.
In 1925 was appealed to the USSR Air Force TsAGI command with the requirement to create a heavy bomber. He must have an engine capacity of 2000 hp and the ability to change the wheel base of the ski. A year later, the engineers of Tupolev begin work on the project. The whole period of 25 29 year on requirements bomber slightly changed, and only 1929 he became aware of the final criteria.
For the base model we have already had experience with TB-1 aircraft with engines "Curtiss" In-1570 "Conqueror". The plan was to replace it with "Mikulin" M-17. The first experimental model with removable ski chassis tested at the end of December 1930 years. It raised to the sky Gromov. The aircraft showed himself very well, and in February 31 years by order of the Soviet Air Force ANT-6 (TB-3) with engines M-17 launched into serial production.
After some time the prototype aircraft refitted engines BMW VI 500. They were developed in TsAGI, their power - 720 hp Radiators have increased, and remade a constant angle of attack. Also changed the one-wheeled chassis with wheels Wagon x 1350 300 mm. The first instance of a modified TB-3-4 17M-rocketed in January 4 1932 years. But there was an unpleasant incident. Already enrolled in a series of aircraft was on 12% heavier than the designed prototype, which, in turn, reduced the flight performance indicators.
This mistake occurred because of poor-quality sheet metal raw materials used in the design. The plant did not spare colors for camouflage. It is also an abundance of heavier bomber. But engineers at OKB and plant management have found a joint solution to the problem by paying 100 rubles each employee who will find a way to reduce the weight of 1 kg. Due to the weight of the aircraft decreased by 800 kg, but it presents the difference in weight between the machines of the series.
In 1933 year as an experiment Tupolev ordered to improve the streamlining of one of the aircraft. It is made by dismantling the turret and zalatyvaniya all holes. Additionally installed on the chassis fairings. Speed increased by 5,5%, and a practical ceiling on 27,5%. As a result, it became clear that a special benefit for the slow and large bomber data innovation is not brought. But flight records were set:
1) TB-3-4M-34R - 18,5 hours in the air;
2) TB-3-4AM-34FRN - transportation 5000 8980 kg at a height of meters, 10 000 6605 kg at a height of meters, 12 000 2700 kg at a height of m.
TB-3 - all-metal aircraft duralumin. The structure of the frame includes the V-shaped beams, covered their corrugating resistant plating (thickness from the 0,3 0,8 to mm). Wing cantilever, supported by four beams. Wingspan increased due to new alloys to 41,85 m. Thanks to a system of ropes made of the wing mechanization. Balancing the system responsible for safe flight in the event that one of the engines fails. The main landing gear is not equipped with brakes. Similarly, not equipped with protection against leaks and fires the fuel tanks. Installed engines M-17 calculated on a flight to 3250 km. Plane defended five light machine guns: 1 on the nose, the middle of the top of the fuselage 2 and 2 under each wing.
The history of the use of bomber
Due to the fast-growing modifications TB-3 quickly outdated, but it is still actively used in armed conflicts. During the fighting on Khalkhin- plane was used as a night bomber. He made more than 500 combat sorties destination. In addition, it was used as a military transport plane, and in the year 1938 daytime ANT-6 scattered propaganda leaflets over Japan.
TB-3 participated in the Soviet-Finnish war. In 1939 he was officially removed from the Air Force of the Soviet Union. However, with the beginning of the Second World War in the Air Force returned to the location of the 516 bombers in this class, in the Navy - 25 aircraft. Since June 23 41 years, the aircraft began to be used as a night bomber. TB-3 was located far from the border and the main places of fights, so little hurt. During the war with the non-combat losses, inclusive destroyed only 40 bombers.
The Red Army tried to use the aircraft in the daytime, but almost all such operations failed with a crash. With good survivability, the bomber was a very slow and automatically became an ideal target for anti-aircraft and air defense fighters. In fact, after a series of losses attributed to the plane bombers night time. Due to the low rate of the bombing it was very accurate. ANT-6 participated in all the difficult battles between 41 43 on year. The most important were: Battle of Smolensk, the Battle of Moscow, Stalingrad, Leningrad blockade, the Battle of Kursk. By July 1945 years 10-3 representatives of TB has been on the air force on full alert. For a long time it served as a cargo plane and landing. For the first six months of the Second World War TB-3 2797 tons of cargo transported and 2300 people.
The aircraft is also used as the transport fighters and tankettes (T-27, T-38, T-37). There are documents that speak of the unsuccessful attempts to use with the help of radio as a flying bomb.
1. TB-3-4M-17F - the first serial modified TB-3. It refers to the half-built bombers in this class.
2. TB-3-4M-34 - mounted AM-34 engine encased oil cooling, radiators improved.
3. TB-3-4M-34R - AM 34R engine with gearbox. Increased efficiency, improved overall performance characteristics.
4. TB-3-4AM-34RD - increased range, improved streamlined fuselage and the wheel brakes.
5. TB-3-4AM-34RN - mounted engines AM 34RN, four-blade propeller engines of internal and external two-bladed. Standard chassis is replaced by a single two-meter. Replace the old guns for new ShKAS. Increased maximum speed and service ceiling. The series was not included.
6. TB-3-4AM-34FRN / FRNV - mounted motors AM 34FRN / FRNV with increased power. Improved aerodynamics, propellers, landing gear and brake. The maximum speed exceeds 300 km / h.
7. TB-3D - mounted diesel engine AN-1. The series was not included.
8. F-2 - the shipping version of TB-3 defined motors M and M-17-34.
9. ANT-6-4M-34R "Arctic Air". Designed 5 copies. Used as a forwarding planes to the North Pole (1937 year).
The bomber was in service of the two countries: the Soviet Union and China.
|Wing area, m2||234.50|
|engine's type||4 PD MF 34FRN|
|Power, hp||X 4 900|
|Maximum speed km / h|
|near the ground||245|
|Cruising speed, km / h||182|
|Practical range, km||2000|
|The maximum rate of climb, m / min||75|
|Practical ceiling, m||8000|
|Armament:||Four 7.62-mm machine gun YES, 3000 kg bombs|
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