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TB-3
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TB-3

The aircraft Tupolev TB-3 (ANT-6). A photo. History. Characteristics.

 

In 1925 was appealed to the USSR Air Force TsAGI command with the requirement to create a heavy bomber. He must have an engine capacity of 2000 hp and the ability to change the wheel base of the ski. A year later, the engineers of Tupolev begin work on the project. The whole period of 25 29 year on requirements bomber slightly changed, and only 1929 he became aware of the final criteria.

For the base model we have already had experience with TB-1 aircraft with engines "Curtiss" In-1570 "Conqueror". The plan was to replace it with "Mikulin" M-17. The first experimental model with removable ski chassis tested at the end of December 1930 years. It raised to the sky Gromov. The aircraft showed himself very well, and in February 31 years by order of the Soviet Air Force ANT-6 (TB-3) with engines M-17 launched into serial production.

TB-3 (ANT-6)

After some time the prototype aircraft refitted engines BMW VI 500. They were developed in TsAGI, their power - 720 hp Radiators have increased, and remade a constant angle of attack. Also changed the one-wheeled chassis with wheels Wagon x 1350 300 mm. The first instance of a modified TB-3-4 17M-rocketed in January 4 1932 years. But there was an unpleasant incident. Already enrolled in a series of aircraft was on 12% heavier than the designed prototype, which, in turn, reduced the flight performance indicators.

This mistake occurred because of poor-quality sheet metal raw materials used in the design. The plant did not spare colors for camouflage. It is also an abundance of heavier bomber. But engineers at OKB and plant management have found a joint solution to the problem by paying 100 rubles each employee who will find a way to reduce the weight of 1 kg. Due to the weight of the aircraft decreased by 800 kg, but it presents the difference in weight between the machines of the series.

In 1933 year as an experiment Tupolev ordered to improve the streamlining of one of the aircraft. It is made by dismantling the turret and zalatyvaniya all holes. Additionally installed on the chassis fairings. Speed ​​increased by 5,5%, and a practical ceiling on 27,5%. As a result, it became clear that a special benefit for the slow and large bomber data innovation is not brought. But flight records were set:

  • 1) TB-3-4M-34R - 18,5 hours in the air;

  • 2) TB-3-4AM-34FRN - transportation 5000 8980 kg at a height of meters, 10 000 6605 kg at a height of meters, 12 000 2700 kg at a height of m.

Design TB-3

TB-3 - all-metal dural aircraft. The structure of the frame includes V-shaped beams, they were coated with corrugations with a stable sheathing (thickness from 0,3 to 0,8 mm). The wing is free-bearing, supported by four beams. The wing span was increased due to new alloys up to 41,85 m. Thanks to the rope system, the wing mechanization is carried out. The balancing system was responsible for a safe flight in the event that one of the engines fails. The main landing gear is not equipped with a brake. Similarly, fuel tanks have not been equipped with protection against leaks and fires. The installed M-17 engines were calculated for a flight of 3250 km. The plane was defended by five light machine guns: 1 on the nose, 2 in the middle on top of the fuselage and 2 under each wing.

The history of the use of bomber

Due to the fast-growing modifications TB-3 quickly outdated, but it is still actively used in armed conflicts. During the fighting on Khalkhin- plane was used as a night bomber. He made more than 500 combat sorties destination. In addition, it was used as a military transport plane, and in the year 1938 daytime ANT-6 scattered propaganda leaflets over Japan.

TB-3 (ANT-6)

TB-3 participated in the Soviet-Finnish war. In 1939 he was officially removed from the Air Force of the Soviet Union. However, with the beginning of the Second World War in the Air Force returned to the location of the 516 bombers in this class, in the Navy - 25 aircraft. Since June 23 41 years, the aircraft began to be used as a night bomber. TB-3 was located far from the border and the main places of fights, so little hurt. During the war with the non-combat losses, inclusive destroyed only 40 bombers.

The Red Army tried to use the aircraft during the day, but almost all such operations failed with a crash. Possessing good survivability, the bomber was very slow and automatically became the ideal target for antiaircraft guns and air defense fighters. In fact, after a number of losses, the plane was attributed to the bombers of the night time. Due to the low speed, the bombing was very accurate. ANT-6 participated in all complex battles in the period from 41 to 43 year. The most important were the Smolensk battle, the Battle of Moscow, the Battle of Stalingrad, the blockade of Leningrad, the Battle of Kursk. By July 1945 10 representatives of TB-3 were still in service with the Air Force in full combat readiness. For a long time the airplane served as a cargo and amphibious. For the first six months of the Second World War, TB-3 transported 2797 tons of cargo and 2300 people.

The aircraft is also used as the transport fighters and tankettes (T-27, T-38, T-37). There are documents that speak of the unsuccessful attempts to use with the help of radio as a flying bomb.

Modifications TB-3

  • 1. TB-3-4M-17F - the first serial modified TB-3. It refers to the half-built bombers in this class.

  • 2. TB-3-4M-34 - mounted AM-34 engine encased oil cooling, radiators improved.

  • 3. TB-3-4M-34R - AM 34R engine with gearbox. Increased efficiency, improved overall performance characteristics.

  • 4. TB-3-4AM-34RD - increased range, improved streamlined fuselage and the wheel brakes.

  • 5. TB-3-4AM-34RN - mounted engines AM 34RN, four-blade propeller engines of internal and external two-bladed. Standard chassis is replaced by a single two-meter. Replace the old guns for new ShKAS. Increased maximum speed and service ceiling. The series was not included.

  • 6. TB-3-4AM-34FRN / FRNV - mounted motors AM 34FRN / FRNV with increased power. Improved aerodynamics, propellers, landing gear and brake. The maximum speed exceeds 300 km / h.

  • 7. TB-3D - mounted diesel engine AN-1. The series was not included.

  • 8. F-2 - the shipping version of TB-3 defined motors M and M-17-34.

  • 9. ANT-6-4M-34R "Arctic Air". Designed 5 copies. Used as a forwarding planes to the North Pole (1937 year).

TB-3 (ANT-6)

 

The bomber was in service of the two countries: the Soviet Union and China.

TB-3 characteristics:



Modification TB-3
Wingspan, m 41.80
Length m 25.10
Height, m 8.5
Wing area, m2 234.50
empty aircraft  
normal takeoff 18877
engine's type 4 PD MF 34FRN
Power, hp X 4 900
Maximum speed km / h  
near the ground 245
on high 300
Cruising speed, km / h 182
Practical range, km 2000
The maximum rate of climb, m / min 75
Practical ceiling, m 8000
Crew 4
Armament: Four 7.62-mm machine gun YES, 3000 kg bombs

 

Aircraft

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Aircraft TB-1 and TB-3 are the first in the line of the glorious cohort of heavy bombers of the brand "Tu". The task of creating a combat vehicle capable of inflicting a powerful blow to the enemy was posed to domestic aircraft designers, as soon as the young Country of Soviets felt itself to be a state. However, there were no production areas or materials available. Experiments were conducted with layout schemes, calculation methods, technological approaches, the use of metal in the design. And only by the beginning of the thirties. Tupolev carried out the order. ANT-6 (TB-3), which became the continuation of TB-1, at the time of its release was the world's heaviest land plane. Four engines were placed along the leading edge of the wing two on each side. This alone testifies to the courage of Tupolev's constructive thought, based on scientific calculation.
The fate of the aircraft was such that, as a modern for its time, he did not have to take part in hostilities. But "under the curtain" TB-3 career was in demand. Since the military conflict in the Khalkhin-, ANT-6 was used by the Soviet troops on its intended purpose - as a percussion bomber, as well as transport and amphibious machines. The aircraft was used extensively on all fronts and remained in service until the last battles of the Second World War.

The legendary bomber. But to a great regret, he was too old for the Second World War. A huge number of downed TB-3 just proves my point. It is a true story too obvious, too slow and very malomanevrenny. M6ezhdu way is the only old-style Soviet air machine, which is in the amount of three units took part in the first victory parade in 45-m. Not on the ground. There's no planes were due to bad weather.
But on its own aircraft bomb, in a good way.

Heavy type bomber. Power. The winged, multi-ton machine that can be several thousand kilometers to deliver the deadly cargo and dump it on the enemy. I believe that TB is similar to the flying fortress. Around full of machine guns and cannons capable of attacking any who approach. According to many reports in 30-ies of this particular aircraft was the best bomber. He had an exemplary flight characteristics. It was both reliable and easy to operate. Indeed, the pride of Soviet aircraft.

Heavy type bomber. Power. The winged, multi-ton machine that can be several thousand kilometers to deliver the deadly cargo and dump it on the enemy. I believe that TB is similar to the flying fortress. Around full of machine guns and cannons capable of attacking any who approach. According to many reports in 30-ies of this particular aircraft was the best bomber. He had an exemplary flight characteristics. It was both reliable and easy to operate. Indeed, the pride of Soviet aircraft.

In his legendary plane !!! And I worked in the Soviet Air Force in the glory. I even once caught memories Reshetnikov that TB-3 used as a night bomber already in 43-eat. And about the fact that he was an excellent transporter, I generally keep quiet. Roughly speaking, his came off completely, almost to the wear and obsolete. Of course, you can also tell a lot about the well-established series production during the Civil and Second World War, but these events were possible at the expense of many lives, which is very sad.
Interestingly, it was he who was the world's first free-carrying four-engine monoplane. He was especially appreciated for his tour of Europe. Foreign designers simply had a shock when they saw it, not to mention ordinary citizens. However, I believe that many are deeply mistaken when they speak of ANT-6 as the best landing plane. The problem was the following, jumping out of it, it was necessary to first climb on the wing, and only then to airborne. And inside the cabin was very crowded. Therefore, the paratroopers for a long time moved along the salon itself. And during this time, enemy air defenses and fighters could do a lot. But it should be noted that ANT-6 introduced a large quota in the second world.

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