IL-4, which NATO reporting name was Bob, - long-range twin-engine bomber, which is actively used by Soviet forces in World War II. It built on the basis of long-range bomber aircraft DB-3.
Unlike its predecessor, the plane got a new cabin mate, a new fuselage (similar to Li-2), a new wing design and pneumatic retractable landing gear.
The aircraft became known as Il-4 in the course of the war, from March 1942 years. In total in the history of mass production of long-range bombers released over 6883 copies. The assembly was carried out taking into account the wartime so fast that produced aviation units offset the loss of front-line aircraft. Produces IL-4 four plants: № 18 (Voronezh), № 126 (Komsomolsk-on-Amur), № 39 (Moscow and Irkutsk), № 23 (Moscow). These aircraft at the beginning of the Great Patriotic broke into a deep behind enemy lines until Berlin and struck industrial strategic assets.
In December 1938 was held a conference between representatives of the country's air force, which raised the question about the results of the first two years of use of aircraft DB-3.
They were disappointing. The plane had a huge number of design flaws: often show cracks in the fuel tanks, gasoline leaks, sometimes refused brakes, landing gear collapsed and the engines of the M-87 military expects more reliability and dependability. And this is not a complete list. This should include more large cars on the run-off, a tendency to turn right and complexity of the steering. This is due to the fact that the plane was back alignment, due to which the pilot could not release the steering wheel from his hands.
During the Soviet-Finnish War, which preceded the Great Patriotic War, the Finnish war in SB-3 found "dead zone" from the bottom of the fuselage. Therefore, there had to be equipped with additional turret gunner. Before the war with Germany to convert all aircraft retrofitted and upgraded weapons failed. Introduction of the crew 4-th term has further displacement of the center of gravity to the tail, and directional stability bomber has deteriorated even more. Because of dural economy in wartime many of the elements in the design of the aircraft were replaced by wood, which is often destroyed during landing.
In the words of the pilots, the most severe on the plane was about to take off, even carrying weapons, IL-4 had very poor stability and require constant "steer" the pilot for passage of a predetermined rate. The autopilot was absent.
It was difficult and the process of landing. The exaggerated pulling trim led to pitch up. That is a danger to the life of the crew members was present even after a combat mission. Nevertheless, experienced pilots quickly prilovchilis to control IL-4.
Improperly organized combat missions at the beginning of the war gave rise to a strong loss of Soviet aviation. Only in the second half as a turning point and the forces of the USSR went to the counter-attack, IL-4 began to use for its intended purpose, namely for surgical strikes in deep behind enemy lines. Long-range bombers could carry up to 2,5 tons total weight of bombs, but it completely is almost never charged.
Total produced units of the IL 6883-4 different modifications. Most of them were destroyed by enemy fighters and air defense weapons. Another part of the aircraft smashed in accidents and disasters. Cheating from combat duty in the Air Force long-range bombers IL-4 1947 began in the city
|Wing area, m2||66.70|
|engine's type||2 PD M-88B|
|Power, hp||X 2 1100|
|Maximum speed km / h|
|near the ground||332|
|Practical range, km||4000|
|The maximum rate of climb, m / min||264|
|Practical ceiling, m||8300|
|Armament:||One 12.7-mm machine gun BT, two 7.62-mm machine gun ShKAS|
|Normal bomb load - 1000 kg limit - 2500 kg|
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