Mi-8. The first tests. Characteristics. A photo. Video.
Mi-8 is a multi-purpose and widely used helicopter. Designed and developed by designers OKB ML Mile in the early 60-ies. This development is the Soviet mass dual-engine air-transport machines in the world (the list is the most common helicopters in world aviation history). It has two areas: military and civilian.
In July 1961, in the first flight of the prototype stood up in-8. A year later there was a second copy In-8A. In 1967 was already completely revised and replaced the old name for the new Mi-8 stood by the Air Force of the Soviet Union. Because the model proved to be one of the most successful, the current Russian Air Force also bought the helicopter. At this point the unit is used in fifty countries.
The key modification 80-ies became designed Mi-8MT. An improved version, or as it is called, "the product 88», different from fellow improved power mechanization (two engines TVZ-117) and installed auxiliary power design type. However, this option is not so common around the world.
In 1991 year began development of a new civil air transport helicopter Mi-8AMT. At the end of 90-X was developed water transport attack helicopter Mi-8AMTSH. A total of more than 3500 released copies.
The design of the Mi-8
Mi-8 - this single-rotor helicopter, to which there are five carriers and three rudder propeller blade. Rotors are secured by vertical, horizontal and axial joints and steering blades, respectively, of the combined propeller type. The transmission is the same as that of the Mi-4. Solid rotor blade includes a hollow spar, pressed aluminum alloy. To the rear of the stern cover attached 24 honeycomb aluminum foil (the formation of the profile). Rotor blades are equipped with signaling of possible damage to the spar.
Advanced antifreeze system does not ice up the helicopter. It is electrified and has the ability to work both in stand-alone as well as in manual mode (makeup 208 volts). In the event that there was a failure of an engine, respectively, the other will automatically increase its power. And it does not affect the height and horizontal flight. Quality management contribute to the three main rotor hydraulic booster KAU-30B and steering - PA 60B.
Tricycle landing gear will not retract. Tail wheel does not touch the ground tail rotor. Thanks to the external load, the helicopter can carry cargo weighing up to three thousand kilograms. Roll stabilization, direction, pitch and altitude provides a four-type autopilot AP-34.
Passenger modification can hold up to 18 chairs, and transport - 24 place. Indoor climate, support for heat and cold control KO-50 (kerosene heater) and a specially designed ventilation system. Due to navigational devices and radio equipment Mi-8 can to fly, despite the weather conditions and time of day.
Depending on the usage there is an enormous difference between the modifications. One of the first Mi-8 flew into the air because of two engines TV2-117. Their power was 1500 hp and 10-stage compressor was started by the starter-generator SG-18TO. Running the starter-generator of the first motor is powered by six batteries 12SAM28 24 voltage V, and the second - from the starter-generator is already running engine.
While the engine GS-voltage 18TO issued in 27 in the main power supply. Two batteries are installed in the cargo, and the remaining four are mounted in the cockpit. Even though their capacity is small, yet it does not stop to feed electricity to five starts engines alternately. They give current more than 600-800 amperes, while being charged from the generator (DC) and can automatically switch on and off. This ability was made possible by the minimum differential relay (control of the generator).
Inverter PT-500TS feeds gyroscopic instruments 36 voltage three-phase current. Generator CDF-30U provides single phase (208 B) heating elements windshields and screws. From CDF-30U depart two single-phase transformer TS / 1-2 and Tr-115 / 36. The first nourishes navigation equipment, and the second - control devices for the transmission and engine. In the case of malfunctions and failure of the work of CDF-30U all the hardware in standalone mode switches to the inverter ON-750A.
Later series 8MT Mi-Mi-17 and others are significantly different from the base model. Installed engines TV3-117 much more powerful. The air supply to the starter carries APU AI-9V starter and generator STG-3. System power supply outputs a voltage with frequency 208 400 Hz. It is powered by a generator-40PU GHS, which are posted on the main gearbox. To start the APU and, if necessary, emergency power batteries installed 12SAM-28.
Main meals are three rectifying devices VU-6A. The first generator is responsible for feeding current TA №1, transformer heating elements and screws, and the second feeds the slave №2 and №3, defrost mechanism and ROM motors. In some versions additionally heated by a transformer TC / 1-2.
When failure of one generator TS310S04B switched to the second; if denied both then started converters PT-200TS and software-500A.
The helicopter is equipped with two hydraulic systems: primary and backup. The pump NSH-39M mounted on the main gearbox, creates a pressure in each of them. It happens quite a special machine HA-77V. Support for the basic system comes with two accumulators in duplicate - one. Separate solenoid valves GA192 include specific hydraulics PA 60B, Cow 30B total rotor and two CAU-30B management and cross-line types.
There are many types of modernization of the Mi-8. They are divided into types:
In-8 - first prototype helicopter with one set GTD AI-24V;
In-8A - the second copy to the presence of two GTE TV2-117;
In-8AT - the third created a prototype;
In-8AP - the fourth and final experimental model.
Mi-8P - helicopter-type 28 passenger seats;
Mi-8PA - modification to the GTD-2F TV117;
Mi-8T - helicopter transport and landing;
Mi-8TS - export model for Syrian Air Force. The accounting structure adopted by the dry climate.
Mi-8TV - adopted by the Soviet Union in 1968 year. The modification includes the book cockpit, engine hoods and gear, as well as the presence of four ATGM "Baby" and the gun A-12.7;
Mi-8AT - engines TV2-117AG;
Mi-8AV - used to set the minutes (up to 200 pieces) against the ground troops;
Mi-8AD - it is designed to fit small anti-personnel mines;
Mi-8MT - engines TV3-117;
Mi-8MTV - engines TV3-117VM;
Mi-8MTV-5 - modified the nose of the helicopter;
Mi-8MTKO - Installation of lighting and night vision devices;
Mi-171 - issued a certificate of the International Aviation Committee. His modifications - Mi-Mi-171A1 17KF.
There were also 8TG Mi-Mi-14, Mi-18, Mi-8MSB. For special occasions, it has developed a number of special-purpose helicopters. It should be noted, some of them. For example, the Mi-8TECH-24 used for technical and maintenance work. On board were present plumbing, control and test equipment. Mi-8SPA engaged in search and rescue. Mi-8K - air artillery spotter. Same Mi-8VKP represented directly command post air plan. Air Hospital presented Mi-8MB.
Much different from all the Mi-8AMTSH. Helicopter transport and the type of assault is widely used by many countries. Equipped with a set of weapons and enhanced reservation cockpit and engine.
The development of the helicopter.
In 1960 of Mil ML start development of a new transport helicopter, which would have replaced the antiquated Mi-4. Experienced prototype with the designation in-8 made its first flight in June of 1961 The helicopter was installed a turbine engine AI-24 and four-bladed rotor from the Mi-4. Later, the designers had a number of improvements. The power plant was replaced with two GTE TB2-117. It became a five-blade main rotor.
The production and release.
On September 17 1962, the start of flight testing. Helicopter fully lived up to its promise. With 1965, he went into production under the designation Mi-8. The design of this machine was so successful that its production and modernization are still going on. Today Mi-8 is one of the most common transport helicopters in the world. It produced more than 8000 machines in different versions. The helicopter is operated in more than 50-countries of the world.
By design, the Mi-8 - Helicopter single-rotor design. The fuselage of semi-monocoque frame consists of the cockpit, the cargo compartment and the tail boom. Cockpit triple designed for two pilots and a flight engineer. The cargo compartment can be adapted for the carriage of goods or equipped with seats for passengers. The transport version loading is made through double-wing cargo door. Chassis tricycle fixed landing. The power plant consists of two GTD-TV2 117A (TV3-117MT) 2h1710 (2h3065) hp Five-blade main rotor with all-metal blades. Three-blade tail rotor.
Modifications of the helicopter.
There are more than 30-minute versions of the machine, the main of which are Mi-8T (transport) and Mi-8P (passenger). Mi-8AMTSH is a variant of assault with rocket and machine-gun armament. The helicopter is used to perform a wide variety of tasks, such as civil aviation and the air force. With 70-ies Mi-8 used in many armed conflicts around the globe.
Main characteristics of Mi-8
Maximum take-off weight of the helicopter is 12000 (13000) kg. Maximum speed 250 km / h. Service ceiling m 4500. 480 km Practical range. The load may consist of 4000 kg in the cargo or 3000 kg on external sling. The passenger version designed to carry passengers 24. In various troop-transport helicopter modifications can accommodate about 30-12 five soldiers and wounded on a stretcher with escort.
A full list of features and modifications of the helicopter.
The military option:
Crew - 3 person.
Maximum take-off weight - 13 000 kg.
GTD Klimov TV3-117 - 2.
Power - 2 1620 on kW.
Length - 18,424 / 25,352 m.
Height - 4,756 / 5,552 m.
Maximum speed - 250 km / h.
Practical flight range - 950 km.
Service ceiling - 5000 m.
Payload - up to 24 12 soldiers or stretchers with or accompanying 4000 kg of cargo.
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