At the beginning of the year 1946 the Soviet government decided to start serial production of long-range bomber Tu-4, created on the basis of an in-29 USA. In accordance with the two draft versions were produced: passenger and military transport. But if the US successfully launched a number of modifications, the Soviet Union experienced limited machines.
The project Tu-75 developed in OKB A. Tupolev. Work began in 1946 in parallel with the developed "seventies" (passenger version). Pre Air Force counted on the good results in the next year. The Air Force has expressed a desire to get the average transport aircraft with four piston engines. Maximum payload was to be up to the mark in 13 tons. Range of flight - 2500 km. At the height of the maximum speed m 5000 - 500 km / h, the ceiling - 9000 m. At the height of 5000 m aircraft must climb over 20 minutes. Mileage aircraft should be 850 m and run - 550 m.
Also referred to the requirements of defensive weaponry, in particular need to be installed on a plane two twin turrets with cannons 20 mm, one of which is shot down, the other up. In order to hit targets on the sides used blister odnopushechnye installation. Crew - 8 people.
On the military freighter installed the most advanced equipment of that period as a Soviet-made, and from the allied forces. Allies offered autopilot AP-45, astrocompass-aviasekstant, avtoshturval, equipment SCS-51, altimeter RV-2, radio systems "Loran" long-range navigation, automatic radio, a system of "friend or foe" and radio stations RSIU-3 type RSBD, SCR-518, SCR-5.
After reviewing the requirements of the Air Force and prikinuv possible designers of OKB we proposed to use the experience of creating the Tu-70 for the design of the PTS. Also it was used the experience of creating the Tu-4 - advanced Soviet bombers of that period. With his plan to copy machines of aircraft systems, defense installations, and special navigation equipment.
In September 40, work began on the modification has not beefed Tu-70 in military transport unit. In 1947 year in March issued a decree of the government structures, and after him, and writ a letter MAP of the design and construction of military transport aircraft in the amount of one copy. Immediately after the construction had to pass it on state tests, carried out in August of next year. The Tupolev aircraft constantly changing name - Tu-16, Tu-20, Tu-75.
On Tu-70 and 4 Tu-tail unit were copied, wing, nacelle, a large part of the equipment and all the chassis. Wingspan and its area increased slightly due to the large diameter of the fuselage. Sam was also a lengthened fuselage. Altitude park is reduced, the chassis is also finalized. Initially, the project was planned to set AL-73TK-19 engines, but later decided to replace them with more modernized AL-73TKNV or official codification AL-73TKFN.
The diameter of the fuselage in the central cylindrical portion of the Tu-75 match the diameter of the Tu-70. He was 3,6 m.
The most interesting part of the design was considered lower-hatch ladder. With it, you can carry out the loading of equipment and personnel. Accordingly, the division into two parts of the ladder mechanism with adjustable opening into the inner compartment of the fuselage, and a forward - outward allows parachute landing people and equipment. In the future, the design of aircraft similar plan was used a similar system (An and An-8-12).
Tu-75 is a plane on which the first successfully applied the attempt to create a full-fledged combat transport vehicle capable of transporting bulky and heavy equipment in the fuselage. The aircraft would be used in the BBC series in three versions: the troop, transport and sanitary.
The troop option involves the possibility of a fence on the board about 120 soldiers with their landing on the ground, or in the number of parachutists 90 people or in certain variations 64 parachute cargo PD-MM type.
In the embodiment, the air transport machine would be able to take on board ACS-2 76 or seven cars GAZ-67B or 2-3 tractor ST. In some modifications considered the possibility of loading on board 5 85 mm caliber guns or guns with 2 the presence of two tractors.
Sanitary version of the aircraft is designed for the transportation of the wounded on stretchers in the number 31 people, with four accompanying.
In December 47 year at the same time we completed the preliminary design was constructed breadboard project. In January 48, the Commission has reviewed the mock draft Tu-75. In June of the same year by order of the MAP project was moved to June 1949 years.
The first prototype Tu-75 constructed in OKB Kazan branch on №22 plant in 1949 year, in November. He had minor differences from the designed on the design and layout, as it is not established defensive weapons. The first 'taxiing' the plane was made yanvare1950 year.
January 21 50 75, the Tu-made its first flight. He was picked up in the air pilot test B. Maroun (aka commander of the aircraft) and A. Flight (co-pilot). In early February 50, the OS has moved to the airfield FRI in Zhukovsky.
Then we began fine-tuning systems and the design transporter. The tests began immediately and was completed in May. The plane went up relatively well. In taking on board the aircraft 6 man trials. By this time permanently entrenched encryption Tu-75.
But the reason for the transfer of the aircraft on the state tests does not appear, because the air car came late. One of the main reasons is the huge congestion of aircraft manufacturing plants construction of units. The first planned to create jets, long intercontinental bombers and a new generation of fighters.
The result was very simple. Soviet Air Force decided to temporarily manage basic and cheap aircraft IL-12Li-2 and 4 transporters Tu-Tu-4TD, Tu-4T. In the future, planned to be used as a power plant for such aircraft turbojet and turboprop units.
Future work on the "transporters" long-term plan for the Air Force began in two EDO: Antonov and Tupolev.
In 1949 year on the basis of Tu-75 in KB began to consider the possibility of creating refills intercontinental bomber aircraft for the strategic plan Tu-95. This unit could take on board more than 19,5 tons of fuel.
After coagulation of the program has already created a prototype participated in various trials and commercial use. In 1954, he crashed near Kazan.
|Wing area, m2||167.20|
|Fuel kg||to 16500|
|engine's type||4 PD AL-73TKNV|
|flight||X 4 2000|
|takeoff||X 4 2400|
|Maximum speed km / h||545|
|Practical range, km||4140|
|Practical ceiling, m||9500|
|Payload:||two ACS-76 or two tractors ST-3 or 6-7 GAZ-67B or 5 guns 85 mm caliber without tractors or two guns with two tractors, 120 soldiers from planting them in the ground or 90 parachutists or 64 parachute cargo type MM-DD or 31 injured man on a stretcher, accompanied by 4 x-health workers, or to other cargo 12000 kg|
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