Tu-143 «Flight" - a Soviet unmanned reconnaissance vehicle (UAV). Its purpose was to conduct of tactical intelligence by video and photographic reconnaissance of selected areas of the earth and monitoring the radiation situation along the route. The aircraft is part of the aviation system BP-3.
History of the Tu-143
Start designing an unmanned scout "Flight" started 30.08.1968, when there was a resolution of the USSR № 670-241 the development of the complex, which would include drone aircraft Tu-143.
We offer two variants of the equipment of the aircraft. The first included equipment for photography, and should be built up to 1970, the second - the radiation equipment and television intelligence - of 1972 to
Work on the creation of an unmanned reconnaissance complex "Flight" was headed by chief designer of OKB. Tupolev GM Gofbauer and later was replaced by LT Kulikov.
Construction of the Tu-143 did not take long. The first flight of the UAV Tu-143 was successfully completed at the end of 1970 State testing program complex "Flight" was started in 1972 and successfully completed in 1976 city, then it was transferred into the Soviet Army. Serially produced drone began even during the state tests. The first experimental batch of $ 10 pieces Tu-143 1973 was released in Kumertauskaya in the machine-building plant (Bashkiria). Later launched full-scale production complexes intelligence "Flight." Before the end of the production series of Soviet industry produced UAVs Tu 950-143.
New aircraft reconnaissance quickly mastered the complex military and gave it high marks in terms of the tactical reconnaissance. He got to his arms, not only the Army, but other parts of the Soviet Air Force. Conducting joint tests with manned reconnaissance aircraft, the aircraft identified a number of advantages. So he could with great accuracy to penetrate the said portion of exploration by equipping a good navigation equipment. On Tu-143 aerofotoapparatura installed, which allows images to identify ground objects of value, see 20 500 when altitude and speed of the machine m 950 km / h. In mountainous terrain the aircraft was almost invulnerable to enemy air defense systems, so it is actively exported to countries with mountainous terrain: Czechoslovakia, Romania and Syria.
Serial production is produced in two versions, complete replacement bow: the first - with photo-reconnaissance equipment and the second - television intelligence. In addition, the Tu-143 can be equipped with radiation detection equipment.
Purpose complex "Flight" consisted in conducting tactical reconnaissance in okolofrontovoy zone with a depth of penetration of the enemy's rear - 60-70 km. UAV Tu-143 performed photography and television exploration of individual routes and area targets, and could also monitor the radiation situation in the course of the flight.
Tu-143 UAV could carry out exploration at low altitudes in a small cloud. Preparation and launch of the aircraft could be carried out in a secretive mode and unprepared from an engineering point of view position. In the application of intelligence complex "Flight" does the following:
preparing and launching reconnaissance drones Tu-143 using self-propelled launcher in a wind speed below 15 m / s;
automated control during the flight Tu-143 at a predetermined height;
Programming the direction of flight, moments off and on-board intelligence equipment;
photography, TV exploration and collection of information on the radiation situation;
shipping intelligence to a certain point, as well as some of the information by radio to command ground stations.
The design of the Tu-143
Air reconnaissance complex included:
UAV reconnaissance Tu-143 with the system command and control, and replacement equipment;
complex ground equipment to support the preparations for the launch, start, transportation and maintenance of the UAV Tu-143;
terrestrial mobile means for receiving, processing, decryption and transmission of intelligence data.
The design of the UAV Tu-143 arranged on a "tailless". The plane is a monoplane, which has a low wing of small aspect ratio. The front part of the fuselage takes fixed destabilizer, the purpose of which is to ensure an adequate supply of stability in various flight modes.
Sweep delta wing leading edge was 58 °. The fuselage is made according to the type of circular cross section, passing in the oval in the department of installation TRD. Air intakes placed in the rear and above the fuselage.
The ailerons were placed across the edge of the wing, with the help of the Office for the roll and pitch. The structure of the vertical tail was part of the keel, small forkil and control surfaces.
The Tu-143 mainly made of aluminum components (alloy D-16), magnesium alloy AMG-6 and composite materials. The small size of the device, placing the inlet on the fuselage and the use of appropriate materials in the design reduced the rate of dispersion of the effective area.
The chassis Tu-134 tricycle, heel type manufactured during the landing. Front support was removed in the second compartment of the fuselage, the two main landing - inside wing consoles. When planting peaked in the drogue parachute, which put out a translational horizontal speed, vertical landing parachute and put out solid-propellant motor braking, which is triggered after touching the brake wing leads.
Version fotorazvedchika carried on board the aerial camera type PA-1, having a length of film stock 120 meters. Intervals shooting are set automatically depending on the altitude drone.
TV reconnaissance drone carried out another option due to equipment such as I-429B "Chibis". Transmission of television images to ground stations took command of the air.
During radiation survey instruments used "Sigma-P", which was able to transmit data via radio.
Tupolev Tu-143 Environmental Specifications:
|Wing area, m2||2.90|
|engine's type||TRD TRZ-117|
|Thrust, kgf||X 1 640|
|Maximum speed km / h|
|Cruising speed, km / h||950|
|Practical range, km||180|
|Flight Time, min||13|
|Practical ceiling, m||1000|
|The minimum flight altitude, m||10|
Tupolev Tu-143. Gallery.
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