Aircraft SR-71 Blackbird is a new supersonic strategic reconnaissance, which is in service with the US Air Force. He is the informal name of the Blackbird, which translated means "black bird". The main advantage of this machine is the high speed performance and excellent maneuverability. Due to these performance aircraft has the ability to very quickly gain altitude and to evade enemy missiles. Model SR-71 actively exploited since the early 1964 1988 year on year. Total operating 32 such machines were produced, one was lost 12. Losses were not fighting, but as a result of breakdowns and accidents.
Development of the model SR-71 Blackbird
All the works on this project were based on previous developments on the plane A-12. Older model as it has evolved into a new unit at the expense of modernization in the configuration and a significant reduction in the visibility of the aircraft to the enemy equipment. The name of the intelligence received from the US bomber type XB-70, due to which the device was originally designated as RS-70. Still, the first prototype was designated as A-12, because he had a large number of bombers in size and weight. Serial machines were equipped with the most modern avionics that time and began to be referred to as SR-71.
Design description SR-71 Blackbird
The machine is characterized futuristic view of the body, which allows to achieve high aerodynamic performance, regardless of flight mode. All load-bearing surface of the aircraft have a complex modular structure diagram with a cross section. The housing has a tailless scheme, it is fitted thin trapezoidal wings. Wing sweep rate is in 60 degrees.
By plane missing PGO and a stabilizer instead of gondolas wings were installed all-moving fins, which are inclined inwards by 15 degrees. aircraft Chassis consisted on three pillars, which are retracted against the movement of the machine. All racks are cleaned in the body and wings of the apparatus.
Initially, designers have met with the problem of heating a large body aircraft as has the ability to fly at a speed which is three times the speed of sound. To solve this problem, designers have used titanium alloy, in which the number reaches the target of the glider 90%. Also it should be noted that the machine had to the early development of new technologies while stealth. That is why the name Blackbird aircraft was used by him to paint a dark blue paint, which is perfectly camouflaged spy in the night sky.
The design of this aircraft the most special and interesting can be called air intakes, and because they can achieve high flight speeds in 3300 km / h. In addition to a large maximum speed, the air intakes provide an excellent job and the car engines at subsonic speeds. This is all possible due to the moving front of the nacelle, with a retractable engine operation, which amount to a value of 1,6 Mach. At higher Mach numbers intake becomes ramjet engine mode.
Problems during the flight at an altitude of thousands of meters of 24
- When using a standard oxygen mask with normal oxygen pressure at the height of kilometers 13 pilot can not breathe, which can lead to unconsciousness and impaired functioning.
- At high speeds in 3300 km / h and over the front part of the fuselage is heated to a temperature in 400 ° C, and the average temperature of the whole body reaches a figure of 260 ° C.
To solve these problems the designers have developed special suits for pilots, which provide normal pressure for aircrew SR-71 Blackbird. In the future, the same costumes were used in space programs for astronauts. To reduce the temperature inside the cabin used by air conditioners, which are able to create normal conditions for the pilot in the cockpit. All heat from the cabin was transferred to the fuel through the engine placed in front of the heat exchanger.
Flight of the reconnaissance SR-71 Blackbird was only possible with the use of a special fuel JP-7. This fuel is different from the others in that it has a high flash point, moreover, it is stable at high temperatures. It was also used as a liquid for cooling and other cockpit instrumentation compartments. The heated fuel from the heat exchanger directly into the engine combustion chamber, which excluded the ignition of vapor from the heated fuel.
A feature of SR-71 model can be called the mass of the aircraft was refilled 7,71 tons, of which 4,6 tonnes was fuel. It should be noted that a fully seasoned scout could not fly, so he held off with a small amount of fuel, and then accelerated as much as possible to warm up the fuselage skin. Only after this was carried out refueling in the air machine with a pre-tanker taken off. In addition, the system-caisson tanks cars had ignition gaps, because of which completely filled the plane still on the runway tech. By carrying out refueling in the air, the fuel supply just enough to 70-80 minutes of flight and that at cruising speeds. Due to a small range of flight the aircraft was distilled directly next to the line of application.
With regard to the onboard equipment, it has been the most perfect and secreted at that time. In addition, most of all the electronics has been developed by scientists precisely for this model, which made it possible to more effectively apply it. Particular attention was paid to the navigation device on the route, which took place at a high altitude. A special feature was the astrocorrection navigation system that allows very accurately determine the location of the aircraft by the stars at any time of the day.
A special feature of this model is a scout and that when you create a marked decrease in the system was first applied to enemy radar systems. a lot of work has been done in the industry, and then came to the conclusion that it is necessary to design the aircraft fuselage with a flat shape, also reduced ESR. Very well thought out and his tail corners, which allows radio waves to beat. Also reconnaissance SR-71 Blackbird has radiopoglaschayuschee paint coating. Moreover, to reduce exhaust temperature and reduce its visibility in the infrared spectrum in the fuel is added cesium. Yet the heated body at high speeds gave this device. At that time, data technology lagged behind the development of the USSR.
Operation reconnaissance SR-71 Blackbird
- In 1968 he was an active participant in intelligence operations in North Korea and Vietnam. When performing combat missions in Vietnam became the only American aircraft, which have not managed to bring down the air defense system developed in the Soviet Union.
- During the Cold War, carried out intelligence operations on the Kola Peninsula and in Cuba.
- When basing SR-71 Blackbird on the territory of Japan conducted a regular violation of Soviet airspace and such flight reached 12 violations per day.
- Aircraft SR-71 1973 in aerial surveys conducted by Egypt, Syria and Jordan. This survey was done during active hostilities Yom Kippur War.
- This unit has also been applied to civilian use by NASA for testing programs such as SCAR and AST.
- Also, due to ramjet propulsion system many speed records have been achieved. The most famous and important is the maximum speed of the aircraft in 3529,56 km / h. Total this machine 4 established world records for speed.
Stop using SR-71 Blackbird aircraft was due to the fact that quite inconvenient to transport fuel, which is suitable only for one machine in different corners of the planet. In addition, these scouts have been converted 30 tankers, which are also constantly had to refuel. In addition, it is quite an old model, and priority is given to a new generation of aircraft.
The official cancellation of SR-71 Blackbird aircraft type held 26.01.1990 years. Recent 6 working machines were aimed at air bases as a patrol aircraft. Also, two devices were sent to the Smithsonian Museum and the Aviation Museum in Washington, DC. It should be noted that in the early 1995, the US government allocated one hundred million dollars for the restoration of the three machines SR-71, which again returned to the Air Force.
SR-71 Blackbird. "Blackbird" characteristics:
|Aircraft Length m||32.74|
|Wing area, m2||141.10|
|engine's type||2 turbofan Pratt Whithey J-58 (JT-11D-20B)|
|rated||X 2 10430|
|afterburner||X 2 14740|
|Maximum speed km / h||3300|
|Cruising speed, km / h||3087|
|Practical range, km||5230|
|Tactical range, km||2000|
|The duration of the flight without refueling, ch.min||1.30|
|Practical ceiling, m||25910|
Aircraft SR-71 Blackbird video
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