Mi-12. A photo. History. Characteristics.
Mi-12, which got by NATO code name "Homer" - the most heavy cargo plane that has ever been produced. The main difference of this model from the standard design of helicopters became the lateral placement of the screws on the wings, engine driven D-25VF. As planned by the developers, in-12 (the initial name of the project) was to have capacity of more than 30 tonnes to convey to him the elements of intercontinental ballistic missiles.
Military aircraft and the economy is very needed in the transport integrity of Georgia with a total weight of over 20 m with vertical takeoff and landing type. That machine was supposed to be, in theory, the Mi-12. It takes into account the purpose of the helicopter in the transport of cruise and ballistic missiles, self-propelled artillery (such as the Su-100), tanks PT and T-76-54, armored personnel carriers. In total, this versatile helicopter could forward to the 80 different types of equipment and weapons.
In the context of the Cold War, defense systems were built at strategic points of the USSR. And there was an urgent need to create a heavy-lift aircraft and helicopters, which could in the short term to carry the whole heavy missiles. In-12 was developed in tandem with the aircraft AN-22. The task of the aircraft included transfer of military equipment to the airport, and in-12 - in the short position. Therefore, the size of the cargo compartment of the two aircrafts were designed to be the same.
Tests In-12 have been quite successful. It made 122 77 hovering flight and who have demonstrated high efficiency of all systems of the helicopter.
Benefits of MI-12
- Excellent handling, including the autopilot off
- High levels of control during rotary action
- Low engine power in forward flight
- Good noise and vibration, high level of comfort in the cockpit
As shown by test flights, even working on two of the four engines, the helicopter is enough power in order to take off from the city. Helicopter flight characteristics hardly differs from the Mi-6, but the size of its cargo compartment increased over time 7.
Unfortunately, in spite of the huge dimensions and versatile functionality to mass production in-12, it never came. The reasons for this phenomenon can be found a few.
- At the end of 60-ies build strategic missile bases lost its relevance, and costly transportation of equipment for air defense is no longer needed. And other types of goods is also not suitable for transport on B-12, on the basis of cost-effectiveness considerations.
- In the Saratov aircraft factory rejected the release of In-12 because of congestion factory orders other important capacities.
- Started design work on the creation of Mi-26, 12-inferior MI on duty, but superior in a number of other indicators.
The OKB. Mile at the same time in-12 engaged in the development of super-heavy helicopter in-16, having a load capacity of up to 40 50 t. As expected, this device would be able to transport heavy military vehicles and air defense equipment. In fact, it is in this model, tried to correct some of the shortcomings in-12, having involved six engines D-25VF and three-screw propulsion system.
However, later the idea to install on B-12 two gas turbine engines D-30V total capacity 40 000 hp and increasing the blade from three to six for each screw. In 1966 was with these changes, the project was called Mi-12M. According to preliminary calculations, the capacity at the upgraded model was sufficient for a total mass of freight tonnes on 25 500 40 km and t on 200 km. The government has given the green light to the project development, but due to the termination of the program in-12 is not moved further create a life-size mock helicopter.
The design of the Mi-12
The development of super-heavy cargo helicopter there were a number of problems that complicate the gigantic dimensions of the designed device. Many child OKB. Mile had 4 in the design of the engine and a transverse twin screw scheme. Fasteners propeller groups was carried out on the terminals truss consoles. The screws had to put more in diameter than at all before that time famous helicopters.
Later OKB. Solovyov has created for the Mi-12 unique modification of the engine D-25F. Transmission shaft of the rotorcraft gave power to the motors and gearboxes to function even in the face of partial or complete failure. Fuel and housed in the outboard wing tanks.
The fuselage of the Mi-12 made on semi-monocoque type and recalls the figurative expression of one of the developers, a huge Gothic cathedral. In front of the fuselage is a two-storey control cabin. The ground floor is designed for two pilots, a flight engineer and bortelektrika, and the top - to the navigator and radio operator. In the tail of the fuselage were placed side flaps and the power ladder. During the opening created an opening for the entry of equipment and handling performance while taking advantage of hoists and electric winches. In the central part of the fuselage was a huge cargo hold having 28h4 dimensions 4h4,4 m. Add in that it can be 196 soldiers.
Under the rear part of the fuselage was empennage of the aircraft type, with the rudders and vertical height and washers. Increasing management efficiency is achieved by controlling the rudder and elevator synchronized control of the helicopter with the rotors. Indicator lift regulated by a simultaneous change of pitch rotors. For machine control on a roll meets the differential control.
To adjust the values of propulsive force and longitudinal balancing used cyclic changes screws that reach work swashplate.
Mi-12 had a tricycle landing gear. The front counter was dual casters, which are placed under the control cabin. The two main landing gear with dual wheels located under the right and left farms. The design of the rear fuselage of Mi-12 were still trailing support which allows you to load in cargo compartment heavy equipment.
While state tests were mostly criticism of the equipment of the helicopter, so improvements were made in this direction.
In addition to the autopilot AP-44 was added another autopilot VUAP-2, which after a short time replaced by the AP-34B1. Also, the design was implemented radar "Latium".
The changes were made and the structure of the blade. So, on the Mi-12 were first tested composite blades with steel style Farmhouse, fiberglass and foil end cellular content.
Chronology of creation
Design superheavy helicopter in-12 (Mi-12) was started in 1959
1961 city - the Soviet government was given the task to design a helicopter to lift weight from 20 25 t up.
3.05.1962 - at a meeting of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union adopted a resolution on the establishment of a helicopter in-12, which would have a cargo cabin as the aircraft AN-22.
April 1965 city - issued a decree on the construction of the first test specimen In-12.
In the summer, the first 1967-12 sample B was transferred to state flight tests. The first flight took place in punk 27.06.1967, at the helm of the day was a test pilot VP Koloshenko. In this flight, we were first obtained by the self-oscillation of the "control system - design." Eliminate the adverse aerodynamic phenomenon managed by tightening control system. The ends of the vertical stabilizer recorded additional washers.
Since December 1967, at In-12 systematically raised in the air, and a month later, state testing program was successfully completed.
In 1970 the State Commission gave the green light for series production of the Mi-12.
In the summer of the year 1971 helicopter took part in the air show in Le Bourget (France), where he received the award. Sikorski. After the exhibition, he made several demonstration flights over Paris, Copenhagen and Berlin.
The second copy of the Mi-12 was collected on a cost center only 1973 year. From the first instance it has a more stringent controls and reinforced tail support. Today this machine is in the Air Force Museum in Monino, and the first in-12 transferred for permanent storage in the Yakovlev Design Bureau. Mile.
The first flight, year 1967
The number, type and brand of engines 4 GTD D-25VF
Engine power, kW 4780
The parameters of the rotor:
- Diameter, m 35
- number of blades x 5 2
Empty weight of the helicopter, that 68,9
Takeoff weight, t:
- normal 96
- maximum 102
- with the maximum load
- on the external sling -
Maximum transported cargo, tons
- 25 inside cabin
- on the external sling 16
Static ceiling in ground effect at normal takeoff weight, m 1000
Dynamic ceiling, m 3500
Practical flight range at an altitude of 500 m at normal takeoff weight with 5% ethyl fuel residue after planting km 440
flight speed, km / h
- maximum 260
- cruising 230
Dimensions of cargo cabin, m
- 28,15 length
- height 4,4
- width 4,4
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