Tu-95, which is the codification of NATO was called "Bear" - a Soviet turboprop strategic bomber-rocket carrier. He belonged to the fastest propeller-driven airplanes of the world of the Cold War, and was the last serial turboprop bomber, taken into service. Produced in various versions, depending on the tasks. The last manned cruise missiles to destroy targets in the enemy's rear in all weather, day and night.
This is a rare aircraft, which, as in the US-52, was armed with more than 50 years.
History of the Tu-95
The end of the Great Patriotic War, the unification with the former allies in the anti-German coalition, the US development of nuclear weapons made the state leadership and the aviation industry to speed up work on the construction of aircraft carriers of the atomic bomb. Next, the designers were forced to seek a solution to the problem of achieving such aircraft and the United States. The main Soviet strategic aviation bomber Tu-4 not have functionality to overcome such distances.
In the early 1950, Stalin met with Tupolev and discussed issues of creating long-distance bomber. He proposed to build chetyrehdvigatelnuyu car and thus solve the problem. The designer did not support this proposal. Jet engines have consumed too much fuel and not suited for long-distance flights. Tupolev decided to create a heavy bomber with turboprop engines, less speed, but with a greater range.
By 1950, in Kuibyshev EDO 276 number under the leadership of Chief Designer Kuznetsov based trophy turboprop UMO-022 was developed a pilot version of the power plant, which is very interested Tupolev. He personally went to negotiate with the engine specialists. As a result, born unique solution - make the Spark of two engines and equip it with a swept wing glider.
When decided on the power plant and the appearance of a new bomber-missile began to take quite normal contours Tupolev came back to Stalin. The meeting took place, the fate of future aircraft with index 95 resolved positively.
Chief designer of the project was NI Bazenkov. 15.07.1951 received tactical and technical requirements for the aircraft, and launched its schematic design. In August 1951 city began to build a wooden model. In October of the same year they adopted and approved the preliminary design and layout built.
The first two prototypes were built at the Moscow aviation plant № 156.
20.09.1952 - the first instance of an exploded view taken in the town of Zhukovsky for factory testing.
12.10.1952 - made the first flight. Managed by experienced machine «95-1» pilot test AD Flight.
Successfully passing the test lasted until 11.05.1953. It was the first 17-flight apparatus «95-1». During the flight of the third fire engine came on board. Fire alarm system failed to cope with the fire. AD The commander Flight crew ordered to leave the board, and he flew the plane on the way back to the airport. But in about 40 km to the runway the aircraft began to lose height rapidly and fell almost vertically. We managed to save seven crew members from the 11.
The second prototype was brought almost 2 years. He got in his part of the new engines TV-12 (NK-12) and was first flown on 16.02.1955 running MA Nyuhtikova. A year later flight tests in 168 hours long successfully completed.
On the part of the service in the Soviet Air Force Tu-95 1956 began to deal with city
In 1957 was released the first modification of the Tu-95M which put into service. Series production of these aircraft models performed Kuibyshev Aviation Plant, who built up of 1958 50 95 machines Tu-Tu-95M. Further, the plant converted to the production version of the Tu-missile 95K which produced until the middle of 60-ies.
At the end of 70-ies it was built Tu-95 MS, base creation which served as anti-Tu 142M. In 1981 was started serial assembly at Kuibyshev Aviation Plant, which lasted until 1992 of (90 released Tu-95MS).
The design of the Tu-95
Strategic rocket carrier bomber Tu-95MS made on the basis of Tu-142MK. By type of construction - it is an all-metal cantilever sredneplan, who had four turboprop engines, which are placed in a swept wings.
Each engine was built of two coaxial metal four-bladed propellers. The design of the aircraft equipped with the electrical heating system stabilizer, socks wing, propeller and keel. The middle part of the fuselage is reserved for the cargo area.
The Tu-95MS has tricycle landing gear. The front support wheels are two non brake related, the main pillars are equipped with four-wheel brake.
Bow Front retracts into the fuselage niche, the main - in wing nacelles. During the release, retracting nose gear or hydraulic system responds in an emergency - pneumatic system. The main landing gear are driven by electric mechanisms MPSH-18MT, which include two engines with a total capacity 5200 watts.
two pressurized cabin, are not staffed ejection seats are reserved for the location of crew members. In an emergency bailout provided by the crew of the aircraft landing gear through the hatch of the lower leg, which is located under the front pressurized cabin. Evacuation from the rear pressurized cabin is made through the rear hatch.
On bomber installed the most powerful in the world turboprop engines NK-12. They contain 14-stage compressor and Highly economic five-speed turbine. For adjustment of the compressor system meets the air passage valve. The turbine engine has the highest efficiency among aircraft engines - 34%. This aircraft was the first to introduce a unified system of regulation of the fuel supply, which is localized in a single unit.
Features of the engine, such as screw design and high power, generate a lot of noise during the flight. Tu-95 referred to the noisiest aircraft of the world, but that does not stop to operate it as ultra-long submarine bomber.
Engine Screws reserved electrothermal deicing system AC 115 B.
The structure of the fuel Tu-95 11 system includes tanks, which are located in the wings and fuselage.
Despite nedoskonalnye aerodynamic design parameters, the aircraft is easy to take a long distance due to the high efficiency of the power plant.
Tu-95 (Tu-20) - bomber was created in the design office Tupolev in the early 1950-ies. In 1955, he had already shown publicly on air parade Tu-95 (second name, business, Tu-20).
The first airplane flight took place on November 11 1952, at the pilot test conducted by AD Flight. Tu-95 is one of the best in the world. It is commercially available versions of "pure" bombers, submarine, long-range reconnaissance, military transport aircraft, the fuel tanker. Alerting bomber with nuclear weapons aboard near the state borders of the potential enemy is a major factor in ensuring peace in the world. The Tu-95 is in service and in the XXI century.
Powerplant: four turboprop engine design bureau ND Kuznetsov NK-12M, the power of each - 15 000 l. from. The four-propellers, two tolerable for each motor, rotating in opposite directions.
The performance characteristics of the Tu-95:
Wingspan, m 51
Aircraft Length m 49
Height, m 13
Wing area, m2 310
Wing sweep 35 °
maximum flight speed, km / h 1000
Regular speed, km / h 900
Launch weight, kg 160 000
Practical ceiling, m 17 000
Flight range, km 15 000
weaponry: Guns, bombs placed in the bomb bay or outside under the fuselage, missiles "air-to-surface"
On the basis of a military aircraft was developed civil version - the Tu-114. The power plant in both versions of the aircraft did not differ, the geometrical dimensions were correspondingly small differences.
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