The Yak-9. Characteristics. A photo. Video. History.
Yak-9 - aircraft developed by Yakovlev Design Bureau in 1942 year, adopted by the Air Force of the Red Army at the end of the same year. The aircraft is a single-seat fighter - monoplane with a liquid-cooled engine. The first operation in which the aircraft took part, was the Battle of Stalingrad, the importance of which history can not be overemphasized.
Yak-9 most massive Soviet fighter of World War II, was produced in the amount of about 17000 units of various modifications. The main reason for this was the high efficiency of the aircraft as a fighting unit, high aircraft performance data and simple design that will lead to the mass production in time of war as soon as possible. However, what is so special was the Yak-9?
Let's start from the history. In the summer of 1941 years of Air Force first met in battle the German Luftwaffe, which is numerically inferior, superior to materiel, training and experience of the personnel of the Air Force of the Soviet Union.
It will be wrong to say that only defeat this determined the Air Force, because a large proportion of the air made the defeat of the ground rapidly advancing Wehrmacht. But, nevertheless, the fact that technological backwardness at the start of the war certainly played a role. Slowly coming into the part of the Yak-1, MiG and LaGG-3-3 - the most advanced fighters of the USSR at that time initially conceded German Bf-109F, it became clear after a short period of time. Almost immediately, attempts were made to eliminate the gap by amending the above-mentioned models of equipment.
But it has not made the desired effect, and it soon became clear that we need a completely new fighter. Yakovlev Design Bureau in parallel with the operational development of the Yak and Yak-1-7 (developed on its own initiative on the basis of training aircraft) and engaged in designing new fighter will end up with the name of the Yak-9.
1942 appeared at the end of the year, the Yak-9 was designed based on the Yak and Yak-7-1, he absorbed the best features of both machines and the experience of almost one and a half years of war, and that led to its success. Besides slightly improved culture assembly machines, construction was facilitated by the use of duralumin and set the forced engine M-105PF, which greatly improved the performance characteristics of the aircraft. By the time the Yak-9, in service with the Luftwaffe became the main fighter Bf-109G, more powerful than its predecessor, the motor. However, even he was not provided an overwhelming technical advantage to its pilot to the pilot of the Yak-9, only slightly higher than the second speed at altitudes above 5000m and climb at all altitudes, but yielding to the horizontal bend. The main disadvantage of the Yak-9 pilots considered low power arms (one 20mm ShVAK gun and one machine gun UB 12.7mm). Firepower was reduced intentionally, to reduce the weight of aircraft and improve its characteristics, for the same reason, the plane had enough fuel a small margin - just 320kg, which somewhat limits the scope of its application. However, work on the improvement of the Yak-9 conducted throughout the war, and even after its completion. Yak-9 22 had modifications, 15 of which were built in series.
And became the first modification of the Yak-9D with increased fuel to 480kg and Yak-9T equipped 37mm automatic cannon NS-37. The issue began in the summer of 1943 years.
A few words should be said regarding the option "T". Installation of such a powerful weapon in the fighter pilots was perceived ambiguously. On the one hand, one hit with a gun was enough to kill any enemy fighter aircraft (bombers usually was enough 2-3 hit), but on the other - rate of gun was 240 rounds per minute (4 shots per second), and even though it is high indicator for 37 mm guns, but it is low for aircraft guns.
In addition, the gun had a strong impact, and only the first round in the firing queue flew right on target and 2-3 shells near her. Therefore, the efficient use of aircraft with such an instrument had to have a high accuracy, which has not all pilots. But those who had, just after sowing death and destruction. Besides the fact that the NA-37 cope with any aircraft, with armor-piercing projectiles in the film, she has coped 50-60mm armor, ie could hit almost any enemy tank (the upper armor of tanks had not particularly thick), and even to put on the bottom of the small-sized boat.
After that, Yakovlev Design Bureau has gone even further by setting 45mm NA-45 gun on his plane. He got the name of Yak-9K. However, it is clear that even if we could use the gun 37mm not all, the 45mm even more. Therefore, and even because of the poor performance of the aircraft cannon of this modification is not mass produced.
The next version became mass Yak-9M, which had the capacity tanks like the Yak-9D and the possibility of NA-37 like variant "T". In addition, it was equipped with a more powerful engine M-105PF-2 and generally have a modified structure, and hence higher performance characteristics. Release it began in 1944 year. He became a substitute in all parts of the previous versions, as has absorbed the advantages of each.
Also in the year 1944 appeared Yak-9DD, who had a supply of fuel in 630 kg and Yak-9R equipped with a camera for reconnaissance.
Then there was a remarkable machine - the Yak-9B, which had a bomb doors of the cockpit, in which could be placed four bombs 100kg or four cassettes for 32 cumulative anti-tank bombs or mass in 1.5 2.5 kg. Such aircraft were produced 109 units, and they are generally well established itself as light bombers. But they had one major drawback: the bomb bays were located so that the download of the center of gravity shifted strongly back that very negatively affect the flight performance of the machine, in addition, when the plane dropped a bomb sharply "nodding" nose, which was very dangerous.
|wing area, M²||17,15|
|Weight normal takeoffKg||2873||3174||3276||3025||3028|
|The mass of fuelKg||322||486||630||330||475|
|Engine||1 × M 105PF||1 × VC-105PF||1 × M 105PF||1 × VC-105PF|
|PowerHp (kW)||1 × 1180 (868)|
|The maximum speed at heightKm / h (m)||512 (0)
|Landing speedKm / h||130||143||145||144||142|
|Practical range, Km||848||1360||2285||735||598|
|Time climb 5000 mMin||5,1||6,1||6,8||5,5||6,5|
|Time bends on 1000 mWith||2001-2003||26||26||2001-2003||2001-2003|
|Wing loadingKg / m²||167||192||191||176||176|
|Thrust-to-weight ratioW / kg||306||272||263||283||283|
|Cannonball||1 × 20 mm ShVAK
|1 × 37-37 mm NA
|1 × 45-45 mm NA
|Machine-gun||1 × 12,7 mm UBS
The last of the big family "nines", who should be mentioned is the Yak-9U, which appeared at the end of the year 1943. He had a much improved aerodynamics, a new, more powerful engine M-107A and an additional machine gun UB. All this together greatly improved performance characteristics of the aircraft. But nedovedennost low engine life and problems with its cooling strongly "slowed down" the deployment of mass production, so the plane started to act in part until the end of the war.
In general, the Yak-9 - is a piece of national history. It was his appearance on the battlefield marked the end of unchallenged dominance in the air by German aircraft.
- Aviation and literature
- A uniform
- Military aviation
- Civil Aviation
- Helpful information
- The calendar
- Aviation and music
- game air
- Plane Crash
- Aviation and cinema
- Educational establishments
- Author's articles
- Assemblies and units of air equipment
- The probability of catastrophes
- Online Timetable
- The calculation of the distance
Best in the world of aviation