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The Yak-9
Military aviation
The Yak-9. Characteristics. A photo. Video. History.

The Yak-9. Characteristics. A photo. Video. History.

 

 

Yak-9 - aircraft developed by Yakovlev Design Bureau in 1942 year, adopted by the Air Force of the Red Army at the end of the same year. The aircraft is a single-seat fighter - monoplane with a liquid-cooled engine. The first operation in which the aircraft took part, was the Battle of Stalingrad, the importance of which history can not be overemphasized.

Yak-9 most massive Soviet fighter of World War II, was produced in the amount of about 17000 units of various modifications. The main reason for this was the high efficiency of the aircraft as a fighting unit, high aircraft performance data and simple design that will lead to the mass production in time of war as soon as possible. However, what is so special was the Yak-9?

The Yak-9 in flight

Let's start from the history. In the summer of 1941 years of Air Force first met in battle the German Luftwaffe, which is numerically inferior, superior to materiel, training and experience of the personnel of the Air Force of the Soviet Union.

It would be incorrect to say that only this determined the defeat of the Air Force, because a considerable part of the air defeat was made by the rapidly advancing ground units of the Wehrmacht. However, nevertheless, the fact of technical backwardness at the time of the beginning of the war certainly played its role. Slowly coming in parts of the Yak-1, MiG-3 and LaGG-3 - the most modern fighters of the USSR at that time were initially inferior to the German Bf-109F, it became clear after a very short period of time. Almost immediately, attempts were made to eliminate this lag by making changes to the above-mentioned samples of equipment.

The Yak-9 heroes

But it has not made the desired effect, and it soon became clear that we need a completely new fighter. Yakovlev Design Bureau in parallel with the operational development of the Yak and Yak-1-7 (developed on its own initiative on the basis of training aircraft) and engaged in designing new fighter will end up with the name of the Yak-9.

Appeared at the end of 1942, Yak-9 was designed on the basis of Yak-7 and Yak-1, absorbed the best features of both machines and the experience of almost one and a half years of the war, which determined its success. In addition, the culture of assembling the machines was slightly improved, the design was simplified by using duralumin and the accelerated engine M-105PF was installed, which significantly improved the aircraft performance. By the time the Yak-9 came out, the Bf-109G was the main fighter in the Luftwaffe, with a more powerful engine than the predecessor. However, even he did not provide the overwhelming technical advantage to his pilot, before the Yak-9 pilot, only slightly surpassing the second in speed at altitudes of more than 5000m and climbing rates at all altitudes, but yielding in a horizontal bend. The main drawback of the Yak-9 pilots considered the low power of the weapon (one 20mm ShVAK gun and one 12.7mm UB machine gun). Firepower was reduced intentionally, to reduce the weight of the aircraft and improve its characteristics, for the same reason the aircraft had a fairly small fuel reserve - only 320kg, which somewhat limited its scope. However, work on improving the Yak-9 was carried out throughout the war and even after its completion. Yak-9 had 22 modifications, 15 of which were built serially.

And became the first modification of the Yak-9D with increased fuel to 480kg and Yak-9T equipped 37mm automatic cannon NS-37. The issue began in the summer of 1943 years.

Yak-9 scheme

 

A few words should be said regarding the option "T". Installation of such a powerful weapon in the fighter pilots was perceived ambiguously. On the one hand, one hit with a gun was enough to kill any enemy fighter aircraft (bombers usually was enough 2-3 hit), but on the other - rate of gun was 240 rounds per minute (4 shots per second), and even though it is high indicator for 37 mm guns, but it is low for aircraft guns.

 

In addition, the gun had a strong return, and only the first projectile, when firing a burst, flew exactly to the target and another 2-3 shell not far from it. Therefore, for the effective use of an aircraft with a similar weapon, it was necessary to have a high accuracy of firing, which not all pilots possessed. But those who possessed, just sow death and destruction. In addition, that the NS-37 cope with any aircraft, having armor-piercing projectiles in the tape, it still cope with 50-60mm armor, i.e. Could hit almost any enemy tank (the upper armor of tanks never differed in special thickness), and even to let a small-sized vessel to the bottom.

After that, Yakovlev Design Bureau has gone even further by setting 45mm NA-45 gun on his plane. He got the name of Yak-9K. However, it is clear that even if we could use the gun 37mm not all, the 45mm even more. Therefore, and even because of the poor performance of the aircraft cannon of this modification is not mass produced.

The next version became mass Yak-9M, which had the capacity tanks like the Yak-9D and the possibility of NA-37 like variant "T". In addition, it was equipped with a more powerful engine M-105PF-2 and generally have a modified structure, and hence higher performance characteristics. Release it began in 1944 year. He became a substitute in all parts of the previous versions, as has absorbed the advantages of each.

Yak-9 scheme

 

Also in the year 1944 appeared Yak-9DD, who had a supply of fuel in 630 kg and Yak-9R equipped with a camera for reconnaissance.

 

Then there was a remarkable car - Yak-9B, which had behind the cockpit pilot bombs, in which could be placed four 100kg bombs, or four cassettes on the 32 cumulative anti-tank bombs weighing 1.5 or 2.5 kg. Such aircraft were produced 109 units, and they generally proved to be good as light bombers. But they had one significant drawback: the bombers were positioned in such a way that when loading them the center of gravity was strongly displaced backwards, which had a very negative effect on the aircraft's flying qualities, in addition, when the bombs were dropped, the aircraft sharply "nodded", which was quite unsafe.

 

Haraktristiki Yak-9
  Yak-9 Yak-9D Yak-9DD Yak-9T Yak-9K
Specifications
Crew 1
LengthM 8,5 8,6 8,66
WingspanM 9,74
wing area, M² 17,15
Empty weightKg 2200 2350 2346 2298 2291
Weight normal takeoffKg 2873 3174 3276 3025 3028
The mass of fuelKg 322 486 630 330 475
Engine 1 × M 105PF 1 × VC-105PF 1 × M 105PF 1 × VC-105PF
PowerHp (kW) 1 × 1180 (868)
Flight characteristics
The maximum speed at heightKm / h (m) 512 (0)
552 (1800)
577 (3900)
535 (0)
567 (1659)
591 (3650)
522 (0)
564 (1000)
584 (3900)
533 (0)
574 (2100)
597 (3930)
518 (0)
573 (3750)
Landing speedKm / h 130 143 145 144 142
Practical range, Km 848 1360 2285 735 598
ceilingM 10750 9800 9400 10000 10000
Time climb 5000 mMin 5,1 6,1 6,8 5,5 6,5
Time bends on 1000 mWith 16-17 26 26 18-19 21-24
Wing loadingKg / m² 167 192 191 176 176
Thrust-to-weight ratioW / kg 306 272 263 283 283
Run-upM 320 370 400 380 345
MileageM 485 550 500 500 455
weaponry
Cannonball 1 × 20 mm ShVAK
120 rds.
1 × 37-37 mm NA
30 rds.
1 × 45-45 mm NA
29 rds.
Machine-gun 1 × 12,7 mm UBS
200 rds.

 

 

The last of the big family "nines", who should be mentioned is the Yak-9U, which appeared at the end of the year 1943. He had a much improved aerodynamics, a new, more powerful engine M-107A and an additional machine gun UB. All this together greatly improved performance characteristics of the aircraft. But nedovedennost low engine life and problems with its cooling strongly "slowed down" the deployment of mass production, so the plane started to act in part until the end of the war.

In general, the Yak-9 - is a piece of national history. It was his appearance on the battlefield marked the end of unchallenged dominance in the air by German aircraft.

 

Yak-9 video

Military aviation

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Surprise some comments- "none of the aircraft in the territory of the USSR was not produced in such quantities ..." how about In-2 and IL-2 ??? "The most massive strike aircraft 40h" - first fighter is not a strike aircraft, and in vtoryh- if fighting were due samolety- how about the same IL-2 (36163), Spitfayr- (20351), Me-109 (from 30 to 34tys) PV-190 (20 thousand). "The quality and reliability of machines produced ..." - probably because of the high quality and reliability of non-combat losses of at least twice the combat

Soviet fighter model Yak-9 as for me is a really high-quality fighting machine during the Second World War. The merit of the appearance of this device lies entirely on the shoulders of the legendary designer Alexander Yakovlev. In addition, it was manufactured accelerated pace in many plants, due to which it is the most massive attack aircraft 40-ies. Not one aircraft in the territory of the USSR and Russia are not produced in an amount of 16,7 thousand units.
When designing the machine, the designers relied on the development of such machinas as Yak-7 and Yak-1, so it's safe to say that the Yak-9 was a continuation and a qualitative modification of the previous machines. As for me, it is very similar to the 7 model, but in its turn it is more perfect in almost all parameters. The advantages of the new machine can be explained, by the large application of light metals and the accumulated experience in the production of Yak-7. By reducing the mass, it was possible to increase the fuel reserve to increase the radius of the aircraft. It was also possible to increase the number of equipment and weapons. In general, a magnificent and perfect car of that time, I just admire them!

Yak-9, developed as a logical development of the model line of lightweight single-engine fighter designs. Yakovlev, became the most massive aircraft of this type of war period. The fulfilled aerodynamic scheme allowed OKB engineers to concentrate on other areas of product improvement. Moreover, it became possible to make wider use of metal, the deficit of which gradually came to naught. The construction of the Yak-9 remained mixed, but already in the basic version the wing spars were combined of duralumin and steel. Subsequently, many wooden knots and parts were gradually replaced by metal knots. The gain in weight made it possible to increase the payload of the machine. Another feature of the Yak-9 was its saturation with instrumentation - the luxury that the creators of aircraft had imagined at the beginning of the war.
In modern terminology, the Yak-9 can be called a multi-purpose aircraft. Depending on the modification of the machine served as fighters, bombers, attack aircraft, fotorazvedchika, long-range aircraft and communications, the training board. Total Yak-9 22 was made in the embodiments, the serial 15. This official list is not exhaustive, as some military units and repair works were made operational modifications in arms, caused by the military requirements of the time and did not have its own alphabetic cipher.

That's really powerful military machine. During the second world with the help of the Yak-9 it shot down a huge number of enemy aircraft. I recently became interested in this subject, but I can say that Yakovlev aircraft were widely used in the fighting for our land. With regard to this model is its quality and reliability have been obtained at the expense of accumulated experience of designers on the previous models. Besides the high quality can be identified by the fact that the Yak-9 is the most popular serial fighter of the time.

Take a look at the engine. Not Russian. Hispano-Suiza ...

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