Mi-20. Photo. Story. Characteristics.
Mil Design Bureau is renowned for its aircraft to conquer the skies. But there are machines, which few people know. One of these machines is the Mi-20.
The history of the helicopter Mi-20
When people talk about all the developments of OKB ML Mile at the end of 60-ies, it is necessary to recall that which was carried out with the support of the chief designer. Unfortunately, this machine has not been made, but it take a lot of time and efforts of designers. In this development we were allocated fairly large sums. All this for Mi-20.
In the early 60-ies it was made Mi-2, 3,5 which weighed a ton. He was not able to completely replace its predecessor - the Mi-1. Shortcomings were felt in situations that the code did not have to carry large loads or act in sports and flight tests. Also needed was a new, lighter machine learning and training flights or simply to monitor the situation on the ground. All these nuances could embody only more compact and lightweight helicopter. He had to have a weight up to 1,5 tons and could carry up to 4 passengers. The new machine is called Mi-20. Its development began in 1965 year the government order. Chief designer of the Mi-20 became an experienced GA Anushkevich.
At the initial stage of designing the helicopter planned to equip the engine GTD-350, who designed the designer Izotov. But as dovodok and testing of the Mi-2 this powerplant showed low performance, and it has a low reliability, and often came to malfunction. After development, the weak quality of the engine, it was decided to look for better and more reliable options powerplant.
At the moment, we developed a lot of light aircraft engines, unfortunately, they were only at the stage of preliminary design study and blanks. The Ministry of Aviation is not particularly sponsored such developments, which led to even greater difficulties in the selection of the engine. That is why the designers had to find their desired engine behind a cordon.
For the aviation industry a positive sign was the establishment of relations between the USSR and France in 60-ies. Due to this, ML Miles unable to meet with French colleagues, namely the president of the company for the production of aircraft engines. President of the company "Turbomeca" was a native of Russia J. Szydlowski. This French company specialized in helicopter engines, and was also interested in cooperation in order to expand the market for its exports.
In our country, considered a license to buy the French manufacturer of engines in Russia. In 66-67's Mil Design Bureau even acquired several models of light helicopters of the French production. They were equipped with power plants that were produced at the plant "Turbomeca". These helicopters were transferred to the department that deals with the planning for the further study of structures and units.
Brief description of the Mi-20
Initially, the helicopter Mi-20 model was designed as a multi-purpose machine with a single engine. The plans of the designers and the customer was very wide range of use. He had to provide training and training of pilots, the transport of passengers, as well as being health and reconnaissance vehicles. Such a device could be used for military purposes for landing fighters, and conduct fire support from the air. This machine can serve as a mobile headquarters for the commanders of tank units.
The fuselage of the helicopter was a teardrop shape that provides excellent streamlining of the cabinet. In the nose of the car has been placed five-seater cockpit, which had a large glass area for the best view of the area. Cab equipped with sufficiently wide doors, which were made of two parts. And the first part was opening the sash, and the second is equipped with sliding doors. The machine is controlled one pilot and three passengers were placed behind the pilot on the couch, and another passenger could sit to the right of the pilot.
Sanitary model of this machine was able to transport the two injured people on stretchers and a medical escort for. Also planned for the machine, which can be used in agriculture to spray fields with chemicals. For this helicopter established a special suspension bar with nozzles and tank for chemicals. Combat modification can be equipped with six anti-tank missiles, which were suspended on overhead pylons. Instead of missiles such as "Baby" could set the gun or guns to destroy the enemy's manpower.
Engine compartment is located behind the cockpit, the power plant resulted in the movement of the screw head, which is equipped with three blades. Bush main rotor was designed by the classical scheme. She had three joints, but also develops and sleeve, which had no hinges. At the end of the tail boom of the machine was located tail rotor, which was introduced two blades. The tail rotor had its own system of protection from damage, it was presented keel-shaped tail and an extra roll cage. In this model, the helicopter was not provided for the terminal bar. Initial drawings of cars included wheeled chassis, but later it was decided to equip the helicopter Polozova chassis.
Mi-20 had quite elegant appearance at the time and was very different from their relatives. This machine has been well thought out in its layout, which could be widely used to allow this unit. Chief designer ML Miles pinned great hopes on the Mi-20. It was envisaged to use this machine for the introduction and development of new design ideas and technologies.
The first full-scale prototype of the Mi-20 1966 was ready in the summer of the year. The first machine was manufactured in the passenger version, and was equipped with an engine from a French helicopter "Oredon-III», which took power in 355 horsepower. This unit is interested and meet customer requirements. Already next winter car was converted into a new engine "astasia-XII" French production.
All of the design work had a high degree of readiness, but on the way the designers have a new obstacle. The Soviet government felt it inappropriate to continue the negotiations with the French company Shydlovsky. But European governments, in turn, decided that they will not supply airplanes to the territory of the USSR. Because of these reasons, the deal between "Turbomeca" and Mil did not take place.
In 1969, the Design Bureau made an attempt to create a Mi-20 the engine Izotov, but it was not successful. The reasons for this are the large size of the engine GTD model, which led to an increase in the size of the body, and it would look more like a helicopter Mi-2, and the design of the engine Izotov was only a draft. All the above factors have led to the fact that the project Mi-20 had to interrupt.
The revival of the project of the Mi-20 1972 occurred in the year. This event was due to the fact that Glushenkova Design Bureau has produced a new engine is small. This gas turbine power plant, in addition to its low weight, had to 400 horsepower. This engine model GTE-11 give designers great hopes of success. Even second-hand aircraft industry leadership initiative Mil. Mi-20 was refined and upgraded with the latest technology of the time.
In the second revival of helicopter it underwent design changes. Instead of the old sleeve screw installed a new hingeless and the main rotor blades are made of fiberglass. The innovation was the fact that the power plant, cooling propeller drive box and the main gearbox were placed in one compartment. Designers managed to achieve simplification of the design of the machine, resulting in lower production costs Mi-20.
The new four-seater Mi-20 should have weight in 1,2 tons, while it is able to lift loads in 300 kilos. According to the calculations of designers that the helicopter was moving at a speed of 220-240 km / h. But 1975, the project was again closed. The cause of the failure of another Mi-20 was that the design office Glushenkova switched to production of other power plants.
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