Refill the hub units of the system and their types
This section presents the main types of filling machines. Note that the master node is a centralized filling module. There are few options for that module. It allows you to fill up 4 m3 in a minute. This restriction is introduced for several reasons: limited charging rate and the maximum capacity of the filling equipment (water hammer) The speed refueling VS fuel limited by the rules of safety. Fuel (TC-1, the TS-2, A-1, Jet-A1 et al.) Are insulators and can accumulate static electricity during flow through the hose, and at the time of filling cause a spark, which could ignite the fuel and explode it vapors.
For today's fuel charging rate (the flow of fuel through a hose) up to 2 m / s. Fuel industry proposed a solution to the problem: Use in Fuel special anti-static additives. The use of additives can improve the speed of fueling up 5 m / s. Such additives (eg TSA-1 / 2 / 3) is added to the fuel immediately before the sale (delivery) fuel processing factory in complex POL airport.
Fig. 1 Functional diagram hydrant refueling system: 1 - supply tank, 2 - catch, 3 - pipeline, 4 - mesh filter, 5, 8, 10 - gauge, 6 - safety relief valve, 7 - pump, 9 - valve, 11 - prefilter, 12 - filter separator, 13 - hydraulic shock absorber, 14 - rubber hose, 15 - coupling device, 16 -kran STC of liquid feed, 17 - gauge, 18 - PVK-fluid tank, 19 - PVK-filter liquid 20 - supply tank charging valve, 21 -gidrantnaya pit, 22 -zapravochny unit; 23 - plane.
System hydrant refueling aircraft (TSZSVS) is a complex system of pipes and fuel lines with a lot number of control units and pumping systems.
The general structure of the centralized system of refueling Sun presented above (Ris.№1). In this paper, according to the task, it will be considered charging unit.
Figure 2 - A general view of a mobile refueling unit mounted on the vehicle
1 - filter-water separator; 2 - hose reel; 3 - distributing sleeves; 4 - counter dispenser; 5 - flow regulator.
Above is a perspective view of the filling of the hub unit (Ris.№2). Filling in the following way: to the plane, standing in the parking lot equipped with a fuel hydrant refueling unit arrives. One sleeve is connected to a hydrant, which is under the apron, closed the hatch. Further, the dispensing hose is connected to the appropriate jack of refueling aircraft. Filling can be both open and closed type. Next, the pump starts and the fuel supply on board the aircraft. As a rule, located on the platforms of the two columns to be able to fill all kinds of aircraft. For the option of HRT provides two types of fuel column installed on each variety.
Installation for parking two audio speakers are arranged symmetrically on the right and left sides, a distance 9 m from the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and 6 m from the axial line of the main chassis in the direction of the plane. When installing audio speakers last located right of the longitudinal axis of the aircraft on the above distances. It should be borne in mind that in all cases the columns to be placed behind the projection plane and the contours of possible paths of the aircraft is on the taxiways.
Hydrant column should not interfere with maneuvering the aircraft and mobile means of ground support, so they are placed on MS and fueling apron recessed flush with covered parking in a metal casing. The general structure of the hydrant column shown in Fig. 3.
1 - well; 2 - locking handle; 3 - centering arm; 4 - Cover; 5 - drain valve; 6 - the adjusting screw; 7 - hydrant control; 8 - outlet; 9 - gland; 10 - seal; 11 - control knob; 12 - screw machine settings hydrant emergency shutdown; 13 - the valve setting the closing time of the valve; 14 - pilot tube device; 15 - management mechanism; 16 - valve control mechanism; 17 - locking screw; 18 - hydrant cover
For this purpose, the cover is provided with a mounting aperture sizes 3h3 m. To prevent rainwater and meltwater body column sealed lid 4 with rubber O-ring. Gland 9 device prevents the penetration into the body of groundwater. A column cover hydrant calculated strength, the maximum specific load pressure operated aircraft reaching 12 kgf / cm2.
Availability column hydrant control type RG-03 can automatically maintain a preset pressure at the outlet of the column and produce automatic shutoff of fuel as it passes through the column more fuel than specified adjustment, as well as in emergency situations (at breakage of the sleeve at the filling unit, etc. .).
Specification hydrant regulator RG-03
Setting range adjustable pressure, kgf / cm2
minimum 2, 8 maximum
Capacity, m3/ h
Minimal 30, 150 maximum
Maximum pressure, kgf / cm2
Hydrant regulator RG-03 (Fig. 4) is a regulator of pressure of direct action, such as "behind" with a vertical flow of fuel while the device automatically shuts the supply line a special valve, which moves with the energy flow of fuel to his repeated excessive costs. It includes three main elements: a shut-off regulating valves and switchgear.
Figure 4 - hydrant regulator RG-03
Currently, the new domestic and foreign speakers used HRT various modifications mainly produced in Europe and the US such firms as "Zenith" and "Carter". Typical layout of the equipment in the new hydrant column modifications (on the recommendations of IP) is given in Fig. 5.
Figure 5 - Typical layout of equipment in a hydrant column shaft type
1 - penstock; 2 - shaft diameter hydrant box 46 cm; 3 - reverse (isolation) valve with manual or remote control; 4 - additional mesh 20-micron filter; 5 - flow control and pressure; 6 - hydrant nozzle diameter mm 102, 7 - -gidrantnaya clutch diameter 102 mm; 8 - fuel hose; 9 - laying; 10 - gravel cushion; 11 - concrete pad; 12 - air duct
In the hub system used mobile and stationary filling units. Using mobile filling units due to the fact that the use of stationary units require large amounts of expensive equipment, the utilization of which, in numerous places of parking is low. Therefore, at airports with a large number of aircraft parking apron used primarily mobile refueling units. If the number of parking places is small, and the load factor is high enough, it is advisable to use a stationary fueling aircraft fuel.
Select the type of unit grounded technical and economic calculations and depends on the traffic of aircraft types serviced aircraft refueling operations in the duration of parking spaces, parking spaces purpose, which is done loading, the number of parking places served by fixed means of refueling and the existing filling equipment.
The number of fixed units is determined by the number of parking places, the hub served by the system, the rate of one unit for each berth. If you want to be placed on a parking lot of two units. Equipment mobile refueling units mounted on the chassis of cars, trailers and special trucks. The latter may be self-propelled and trailed.
To the airportah with great intensity sorties used machines mounted on vehicles; trailed machines used in airports with low intensity. Almost all filling units have the same flowsheet (ris.№6).
Drawing 6- Process flow diagram of a mobile refueling unit
Roll the filling unit attached to the hydrant (connecting) column of the hub by means of the receiving sleeve diameter 2 100 mm and a length 7-7,5 m, and to the board of the aircraft refueling connector - one or two dispensing sleeve 14. Joining the receiving sleeve to the column and transfer hoses with a closed gas station to the fuel system of the aircraft by means of quick couplings 1 and 15. As such compounds on distributing arms used tips for filling the closed type NCC or manufactured by the normal MAP 2561A. When you open a gas station on the sleeves instead of dispensing nozzles for filling the closed set Nozzles type RP-40. After joining sleeves mounted on the counter-dispenser 9 necessary for refueling fuel dose, open the valve and hydrant column valve installed at the inlet of the filling unit.
Fuel pressurized by the sleeve 2 enters the filter-water separator 4, then stream it is distributed in two separate communications, in which is set the same equipment: a pressure regulator 5, an air 6, counter dispenser 9, flow regulator 11, venturi 12 dispensers sleeve 14. Communication can work together- and separately.
If necessary add to the anti-icing liquid fuel during refueling 8 valve opens, and fluid from the reservoir starts flowing 7 10 the dispenser, which is at a predetermined ratio injects liquid fuel into a stream going to a gas station. Once over the counter dispensing a predetermined amount of fuel to be held on the issue, the counter automatically stops refueling. Then close the valve and hydrant column disconnected hose filling unit.
Upon completion of filling performed suction of fuel dispensing hose in the drain tank by a pump 16 17. If the drain tank is full, the fuel from it can be pumped into the tank of another aircraft or tank truck. Pumping of fuel from the tank is made pump unit or a special device.
On the mobile refueling units are installed special countable metering devices such as UMTS, USDT and 86-3-02k. The desired mode of supply of fuel at a gas station is provided with a pressure regulator and flow 5 11.
Depending on the type of aircraft powered with total capacity of filling machines can be: two dispensing hose from the 700 4000 to l / min, and in one arm of the 300 2000 to l / min. The pressure at the inlet of the filling unit must be 7-8 kgf / cm2And the output 2-4 kgf / cm2.
Fig. 7 shows a mobile refueling unit, mounted on a special trolley. It performs the same operations as discussed above charging unit. Such trailer devices leverage at the airport with a large flow coefficient and refueling. Such units, for example, can be used to fuel large aircraft (An-124, An-225, Boeing -747/767/777, A-380/340), Fuel tanks that can accommodate more than a hundred tons of fuel. Most advantageous to exploit them in conjunction with the self-propelled refueling unit in the composition of road trains. So, be executed immediately refill the sun from both sides to be able to reduce the time it takes to refuel a particular sun and bring profit on flight operations.
Figure 7 - A general view of the charging unit mounted on a trolley
1 - receiving sleeve with a tip; 2 - housing; 3 - control panel; 4 - counter
- Aviation and literature
- A uniform
- Military aviation
- Civil Aviation
- Helpful information
- The calendar
- Aviation and music
- game air
- Plane Crash
- Aviation and cinema
- Educational establishments
- Author's articles
- Assemblies and units of air equipment
- The probability of catastrophes
- Online Timetable
- The calculation of the distance
Best in the world of aviation