Mechanization of the wing of each aircraft It consists of a set of movable elements that allow you to adjust and control the flight apparatus. The complete set of elements of the wing consists of flaps, spoilers, slat, spoilers and flaperons.
Flaps - a profiled deflecting surface, which are arranged symmetrically to the trailing edge of each wing. When retracted, they act as an extension of the wing. In the extended state, they extend from the main portion of the wing to form a gap.
They significantly improve the load-bearing characteristics of the wing in the separation from the runway and climb the ship and its landing. Provides an excellent recovery and maintenance of the machine at a sufficiently low speeds. In the history of aviation has been developed and implemented in reality a lot of models and modifications of this part.
Flaps are an integral part of the wing. With their release significantly increases the curvature of the wing profile. Accordingly, increasing the bearing capacity of the wings of the aircraft. This ability allows you to navigate aircraft at low speeds without stalling. Work flap can significantly reduce the rate of take-off and landing without danger to the aircraft.
Due to the release flap Increases aerodynamic drag. This is very useful when landing because they make more drag, which reduces the speed of flight. If the resistance is off a little bit out of place and takes part of the engine thrust. Accordingly, the landing flaps discharged completely, and during takeoff a small angle to facilitate the operation of the power plant.
Because of the time of flight of an additional longitudinal rebalancing occurs. This, of course, complicates the work of the pilots for the management and retention of the normal position of the aircraft. In most modern aviation aircraft are equipped with a slot type flaps that can consist of several sections, respectively, they form a plurality of slots. The presence of gaps between the sections of the flap helps the overflow of air from the high pressure in the upper part of the wing in the area of low pressure under the wing.
The structure provides a flow of the jet flap air tangentially relative to the top surface. The cross section of the slot is tapered toward the edges, it can speed up the flow. Having slot flap, jet with high energy interacts with a layer of air under the wing, while avoiding the occurrence of turbulence. The work can be carried out by a flap command pilot or automatically. Cleaning and extension elements are due to the electrical, pneumatic or hydraulic actuators. The first aircraft in the country, which have been installed flaps, produced back in 20-ies of the last century, it was a unit of the type P-5. More massive data elements of the wing began to use a 30-ies, namely with the advent of machines with the housing monoplane.
The main types of flaps
Rotary or a simple flap. The most elementary of its design, it allows you to increase the strength of lifting apparatus by changing the curvature of the wing profile. This design increases the air pressure below the wing. Of course, this type is much less efficient than shields.
Shield type flap. They may be simple or retractable. With regard to simple flaps, they are presented with the control surface, which is in the retracted position, wherein they are snug against the bottom of the wing. Rejected, they are creating a rarefied zone on top of the wing pressure. Accordingly, the upper boundary layer flows down. Increases bottom pressure, which creates an additional lifting force. All this contributes to the separation and climb at a much lower speed. Speaking of sliding shield flaps, it is worth noting that in addition to the deviation, they can be nominated ago. This in turn increases their efficiency. This design improves the lifting force on 60%. Their use and currently light aircraft.
Slot-type flap. They got their name because of the formation of the gap in their rejection. After it passes the air stream which is directed with great force in the area of low pressure formed below an aircraft wing. The direction of flow perfectly thought out and does not allow the stall. Founded flap gap is narrowing to the edge, allowing flow-through to get the most energy. On modern aircraft mounted slotted flaps, consisting of several sections, which may form from one to three slots. Using these flaps, the aircraft receives a lift to 90%.
Flap Flaurea has a slide design. The difference is not only the possibility of extension back and down. This greatly increases the overall curvature of the wing profile device. Ego extension is capable of creating up to three slots. Increased lift reaches 100%.
Flap Junkers. Made by type slotted flap, only the upper part of the function of the aileron. This allows you to better manage the roll of the aircraft. The internal structure of the two flaps do the work. This design was used in the assault aircraft types Ju 87.
Flap design Jungmann. This design was first installed on the deck of a type of British fighter Firefly. By increasing the area of the wing and lift them they planned to use in all phases of flight.
Flap Goudzha. The main objective of the design was to reduce the speed during landing. In addition to the change of curvature, they also increase the area of the wing. Such a scheme has reduced the lift-off speed during takeoff. The inventor of this scheme is an English designer of Goudzh A., who worked hard on the aerodynamics schemes. They were equipped with in 1936, the aircraft Short Stirling.
Flap sduvnogo type. This design was a system of quality control of the upper boundary layer. Blowing can significantly improve the performance of the device while landing. This design allows the quality to ensure the overall flow around the wings. It is known that boundary layer arises due to the formation of viscous friction of air flow on the surface of the aircraft, the flow rate near zero trim. It is due to the impact of this layer can prevent the stall.
Flap reactive type. It provides a powerful flow of air in the plane of the wing that emerges from the bottom surface. It modifies and improves the streamlining lift apparatus. By increasing the force required to lift a more powerful air flow. It should be noted that the effectiveness of such a construction is greatly reduced by reducing the total elongation of the wing. Near the ground, such flaps do not justify the calculations of designers. As such, they are not widely used in the aircraft industry.
Stationary Gurney flap presented perpendicular to the plane, which is set at the end of the wings.
The flap has a constant curvature of the Coanda surface. It is designed for so-called Coanda effect - the jet adheres to the surface of the wing, which acts blowing.
Designers all over the world and today fruitfully working to improve the aerodynamic properties of the aircraft.
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