Yak-42 Photography. Video. Driving compartment. Characteristics. Reviews.
70h- In the last century the need for medium commercial traffic contributed to the emergence of new Yak-42.
Yakovlev received from the Aeroflot order for the development of the passenger liner, which will have to replace morally obsolete TU-134 и IL-18. Since 1972 1975 year on year was working on UC 42serii. The first test flight took place in March 1975g.
The plane was piloted by test pilots Yuri Petrov, Arseniy Yuri Kolosov and Viskovsky (flight engineer). Tests were generally normal, but showed a lack of passenger traffic at the time the speed - 680km / h.
In the mid-seventies technically outdated passenger aircraft Tu-134 require urgent replacement. And thanks to Smolensk (1977-1981) and Saratov (1978-2003) aircraft factory were issued medium-trimotored Yak-42. Total created winged machines - 183, two of which were used in the test of strength.
It should be noted that the air car set nine world records. OKB AS Yakovlev did not even engaged mnogopasazhirskimi airliners. The development was a military fighter, sporting and educational patterns.
The very design of the aircraft development began in 1972 year. USSR at the time needed a strong, medium-range aircraft, which would be able to replace IL-18 (aircraft Ilyushin) And Tu-134 (Tupolev). The first four prototype differed minor modifications. The first instance of wing sweep was 11 °, the other three - 23 °. A fourth prototype was different from all the presence of a parachute for the test to get out of the corkscrew. Ultimately, the prototype for the choice fell on the third option (received designation - Yak-42). He was distinguished by the presence of twin wheels on each landing gear and swept tail.
Written off yak-42 - Kindergarten
Yak-42 - is an all-metal semi-monocoque fuselage with nizkoplan (in the width of the fuselage there is similarity with the Tu-154), three turbofan engines and a retractable tricycle landing gear. Also present console swept wing and T-tail with the stabilizer resettable type. It Smolensk aircraft plant in 1974 he released the first copy of the prototype, and in 1975, he enrolled in the trial. He led the famous test pilots A. Kolosov, Yuri Petrov and flight engineer Yuri Viskovsky.
The tests were successful, but the aircraft was unable to gain the necessary speed of flight (680 km / h) at an altitude of 8000 meters. All modifications to the construction and testing involved the deputy designer Tsvelev EG which, as they say, put in work of heart and soul. Advanced designers and engineers (VA Sukhorukov, AG Hlakin, Vladimir Zotov, VV Pogulyaev) were finalized and made many components of the Yak-42.
Since the end of 80-year "Aeroflot" began to actively carry passengers on the Yak-42. The first accident, which resulted in the freezing of a two-year production of this aircraft took place on June 28 1982 years (USSR-42529 tail number). But in 1988 it was launched serial production of the modified Yak-42D. They were increased flight range and the possibility of raising the maximum take-off weight. Most of these models exported to Cuba and China. The last aircraft was sent to 2003 year. Due to the cessation of the production of technical parts in JSC «Saratov Aviation Plant" operation of the upgraded Yak-42D was stopped.
Eventually the aircraft was popular, despite the fact that the same "Boeing-737" and "Airbus A319" need less fuel. However, after the crash (07.09.2011) Yak-42 has been completely removed from the flight. He was operated for long-haul flights and flights between cities.
Through the development of Soviet aircraft manufacturers, many problems have been solved with the characteristics of the contradiction operating very poorly prepared airfields, large cruise speeds and high fuel efficiency during flights. This Yak-42 was this development. In comparison with the Tu-154 was implemented an innovative solution to increase the weight returns, namely the replacement of the air intake channel duralumin was mounted monolithic composite, as well as threaded wing, which allowed the butt to remove heavy components and bolts. Built-in ladder located in the tail of the plane (the same as that of the Yak-40).
Located tricycle landing gear. Downstream front support is available, the main - across the flow in different directions. A cleaning service, release and chassis braking mechanism works hydraulically. The wheels are similar to the counterparts of the Tu-154. Hydraulic dual-class - the main and emergency. For pressure they meet two of the drive pump and pump AC station. Drive pumps located in the engine and №1 №2, responsible for the main hydraulic system. A HC-46-3 (pumping station) that runs from the main system, and NA-55 station DC produced by the batteries, are responsible for the pressure in the hydraulic system of emergency.
Both systems provide the performance of slats and flaps (RP-71 steering actuators), landing gear, a permutation of a stabilizer, cleaning spoilers and braking wheels.
Differences in electricity between the Yak-42 and Tu-154 there is little, except for one detail: the power and back-up is much smaller. Initial system - three-phase voltage, which are saturated secondary 36 System V.
The main elements of the system are:
Three generator (three-phase GT30NZHCH12). Lead constant speed.
Generator GT40PCH6 (from APU)
2 rectifier device. Transform into a permanent three-phase voltage (from the 208 27 B in B).
Transistor-time (static) converter POS 1000A. The main task is to convert the DC voltage (27 B) in the single-phase AC (115 B).
Transformers TS320SO4B in the amount of two pieces. Lower the three-phase voltage.
Static converter PTS-800AM. Since it is a three-phase, used for emergency power.
PTS-25 converter, a static, three-phase. It is used for autonomous power artificial horizon AGR-74 backup sample.
Two rechargeable batteries (nickel-cadmium, 20NKBN-40). Nourish consumers and converters in case of failure of generators and rectifiers.
Navigation equipment consists of "Alder-1" complexes (very similar to the complex "Tansy"), altitude-speed equipment parts (VSP1-6) RSBN, 2 automatic radio complexes, landing system "KURS MT-70".
Fuel system consists of three tanks, one in the center section and two on the sides. Each of them can accommodate more than six thousand kilos of fuel and has a signaling reserve. The left and right side caisson-fed tanks and engines №1 №3. Accordingly, the average engine caisson second feeds (with two pumps). Also, the average APU fuel tank feeds via a separate pump. In case of emergency or failure of the fuel pump motor is quite possible to unite all the fuel lines.
Though in engines and there are no thrust reversers, braking is performed on the run the wheel brakes, spoilers and low landing speed, as well as at the An-24.
At this time, the approximate wear all the fleet of aircraft Yak-42 is about fifty percent. This flying machine was not able to replace the Tu-134, which to this day is in partial operation. There were constructed 183 different series and Yak-42 modifications. At the same time for a period of 70-80 and x-ies of the aircraft it was very modern. But because of the crash 1982 years that happened in Belarus, and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the fate of the Yak-42 was sentenced to freeze.
Existing aircraft modifications:
Yak-42 - initial model;
Yak-42A (Yak-142) - a modified version of the Yak-42D instance;
Yak-42D - modernized;
Yak-42D-100 - option with the presence of avionics;
Yak-42D "Roshydromet" - air laboratory (geophysical monitoring the atmosphere);
Yak-42M - is available with three engines CPS-42M complex;
Yak-42F - modified for aerial photography;
Yak-42E-LL - flying laboratory;
Yak-242 - deeply modernized version of the Yak-42 the presence of PS-90A12.
The fact that the very first aircraft in accordance with the design decision had a direct wing with more lift, however, required to develop the Ministry of Civil Aviation speed 800km / h was possible only with swept wings. In designing and developing a new wing profile it took a bit of time, and soon appeared the familiar face of all Yak-42 - nizkoplan with swept wings and T-stabilizer and three bypass turbojet engine in the rear fuselage.
The plane is made of light aluminum alloy, but the successful engineering solutions and composite materials are used to facilitate mass.
Since the wings are in the form of whole structure, eg wings TU154 TU134 or split, and docking units of the wing compounds have significant weight.
The air intake of the engine has an average length and diameter of the order of 700sm 130sm. It has a curved complex shape and its manufacturing in the form of a solid monolithic element which reduced its weight and increase service life. Three-layer fiberglass served as the material for the channel inlet.
The aircraft is equipped with its own ladder which is in the back of the plane under the stabilizer, which allows, without waiting for the trap machine, to carry out loading / unloading of passengers.
tricycle landing gear with hydraulic control.
Aircraft engines are not the reverse, as a relatively small landing speed (not more than 205km / h) and the weight allow hydraulic braking gear and spoilers. According to the power of power supply and backup, he concedes TU 154, although the system as a whole are similar.
Three fuel tanks, each of which holds just over 6 tons of fuel have the sensor signals to pilots about the rest of the fuel 870 kg., And on the balance 320 kg. during the missed approach. The aircraft has an auxiliary power unit - APU, which is used to start the main engines of the Autonomous Yak-42.
Passenger cabin in complete seating at economy class allows you to carry up to 120 people with a maximum speed 810 km / h over a distance 2900km.
Engines A-36 "Progress" develop cravings 63,74 kN each. The engines comply with international standards in terms of noise and have a minimum exhaust. Empty weight of the aircraft - 33,5 tons. Fuel consumption at cruising speed, depending on the workload of the liner is to 2300 3100 kg of fuel per hour. The crew of the Yak 42, not including flight attendants, includes two pilots and a flight engineer.
The aircraft successfully designed and has a long service life. It consists in the operation of Bole than three dozen airlines around the world, it is also used by the Russian Emergencies Ministry. Part of the aircraft was exported to China and Cuba.
Driving yak-42 salon
Several modifications of this liner, adapted to perform highly specialized tasks, Yak-42E-LL, for example, was designed to test the turbofan engine.
Years of production: 1975g.
Empty weight: 34515 kilos;
Length: 36.38 meters;
Height: 9.83 meters;
Wingspan: 34.88 meters;
Wing area: 150 square meters;
The width of the fuselage: 3.6 meters;
Cruising speed: 650 kilometers per hour;
Maximum speed: 700 kilometers per hour;
Flight range: 1700 - 4000 kilometers;
Ceiling: 9 600 meters;
Takeoff run: 1 800 meters;
Length of run: 1 670 meters;
Number of seats: 120 places.
Maximum takeoff weight: 57 000 kilos;
Maximum landing weight: 51 000kilogramm;
Maximum payload: 13 500kilogramm;
Engines: 3 instance D-36, 6500 kilogram * force;
Specific fuel consumption: 35.0 grams per passenger per kilometer;
All fuel consumption: 3 100 kilos.
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