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Yak-38

Yakovlev Yak-38

 

Yak-38 is a carrier-based attack aircraft of Soviet production. It was the first aircraft in the Soviet Union, which had an opportunity to make a vertical takeoff and landing. This product during manufacturing is also designated as the product 86, and in NATO code, he received the designation "Kznets." The basis of this machine was taken many constructive features of the previous Yak-36.

Yak-38 photo

The Yak-38 aircraft was equipped with an R-28 lifting and propulsion engine and two other lifting engines with the designation RD-38. All this was placed directly behind the cockpit. This device was the only one in the USSR that was equipped with an automatic bailout system, that is, the automatics of the machine independently decided when it was necessary to perform a pilot bailout. The Yak-38 attack aircraft was manufactured serially for fifteen years, starting from the year 1974. During this time, was built 231 machine of this class. Serial manufacturing involved in the aircraft factory in the city of Saratov. This device was widely used on aircraft carriers of the USSR.

History of the attack aircraft Yak-38

His history is closely related to the creation of the previous Yak-36 aircraft, since many units were used precisely from this machine. The Yak-38 assault aircraft made its first flight in 1970 for the first time. In the future, pilots worked on the technique of take-off on short distances, the first such indicators reached the tester Yu.I. Churilov. In addition to the deck-based aircraft, this aircraft was used in military conflicts over land. Thus, in 80, four such vehicles were sent to support our troops in Afghanistan. These machines carried out combat sorties for four months, while one was lost for technical reasons.

The machine did not have much success with the sailors, and its not really like to use on aircraft carriers, due to the fact that it had insufficient thrust-marine applications. Also drawback was the fact that at high temperatures and high humidity the aircraft had almost constant problems with take-off, and he had a short range.

Yak-38

When operating this machine has become a leader in the number of accidents and loss of life. Pilots only saves automatic ejection system. At the end of the year 89 this unit ceased to produce, and all the planes were transferred to the land base, and after a while they are generally removed from the Air Force. With 2004, data stormtroopers were deposited.

It is worth noting that in 85 by members of Yakovlev Design Bureau has created a qualitative modification of the Yak-38M, which had the highest performance. Lockers In this model, it was found two PTB and was strengthened combat power of the machine. On the basis of the Yak-38 planned to create a fighter, which was placed on aircraft carriers. Here, designers planned to increase the area of ​​the wing and equip cars more fuel tanks. Ultimately, these projects have remained only on paper.

Design features of the Yak-38

The plane is made in the scheme cantilever mid and is an all-metal construction. As the base metal was taken aluminum and its alloys, titanium is also used, thereby reducing the weight and strengthen the entire structure. Some parts are made of hardened steel alloys, and antipyretics.

Yak-38

Onboard equipment unit provides the possibility to use the attack in almost any weather conditions and at any time, on land or ship takeoff sites. The on-board equipment included such systems: the control unit ACS-36, navigation system at close range such as "Square", the two units heading reference model SCR-2. Besides all this, using standard devices such as radio compass and altimeter.

The cockpit was equipped with a large number of devices, which served as a pilot to better combat activities. On the dashboard was placed flight director type CAT-1273, altimeter and speed indicator device. On the panel were derived indicators pilot gas temperature, the amount of fuel and oxygen, as well as the standing of the engine speed sensor.

To carry out fire blow Yak-38 was equipped with a new model with an optical sight ASP-PFD-21. For guided missiles X-23 the machine was installed hanging device "Delta NG2." For identification of the unit was the state system "Chrome". To contact the pilots used the intercom and radio class P-863.

Yak-38 2 photo

As for the combat capabilities, here it must be said that this machine is able to carry out an attack on both surface and ground targets and an effective air combat. The device allows to perform combat missions at any time of the day or night. On the wings of the aircraft were fitted beamed holders of weapons. Each wing has been established for four of the types of CDD-60, each could carry up to 500 kilos of ammunition. The total weight of armament attack aircraft Yak-38 was one thousand kilograms.

Total full-scale production engineers made improvements and modernization, which led to the set of the most different modifications of this machine. Modernization mainly concerned avionics and engines of vertical take-off, which was not quite perfect. There have also been developed and training aids. Total use of attack aircraft Yak-38 lost a lot of machines, namely 48 devices, and it is only as a result of disasters that have been associated with a malfunctioning machine.

Yak-38 characteristics:



Modification Yak-38
Wingspan, m  
full 7.02
with folded wings 4.45
Length m 16.37
Height, m 4.25
Wing area, m2 18.41
Weight, kg  
an unladen aircraft 7020
normal takeoff (GDP) 10300
fuel 2750
engine's type  
lifting and marching 1 turbojet R-27V-300
lifting TRD RD 2-36-35FVR
Thrust, kgf  
lifting and marching X 1 6100
lifting X 2 3050
Maximum speed km / h  
on high 1100
at sea level 1210
Practical range, km  
normal 680
during vertical takeoff 500
Combat range, km 250 -370
The maximum rate of climb, m / min 4500
Practical ceiling, m 11000
Max. operation overload 6
Crew 1
Armament: In 4-x external suspension - the maximum - 1500 kg payload, when GDP -1000 kg
2 UR-air F-3 4 or P-60, or RCC X-23,
or P-2 60 and 2 500 kg. bomb
or 2h 500 2 kg bombs and NUR HC-16-57 (55-mm)
or P-2 60 and 2-23 container UPK with 23-mm
double-barreled gun GS-23L.
 

 

Yak-38M

 

The Yak-38 is a modification of the deck attack aircraft Yak-38 and its further development. This machine is able to produce a vertical take-off. It was developed by Yakovlev Design Bureau in 1982 year. Attack aircraft Yak-38M was in service in the Air Force of Ukraine and Russia to 2000 years.

History of the Yak-38M

The impetus for the creation of this unit was the appearance of the British aircraft with vertical take-off, which had a great time on the flight characteristics. In turn, the Soviet leadership has set a target to establish a similar device effective on the basis of already existing attack aircraft Yak-38. All these events were accompanied by the modernization of the old system and the creation of a qualitatively new unit.

Yak-38

The main task of the designers was to create a more powerful engine that would provide an effective vertical takeoff and greater traction in horizontal flight. To do this under the guidance of the designer O. Tabor was created an improved version of the main engine, which is designated as P-28-300. He gave the car traction in 6700 kg for vertical flight and 7100 kg when flying in a horizontal plane. They were modernized and lifting equipment that got traction in 3250 kgs and designated RD-38.

Production of the Yak-38M began in 82 year at the Saratov factory, which has produced Yak-38. And the first separation from the runway the aircraft produced in the late autumn of the same year, when this test machine took off vertically to a height of 7 meters. Complete horizontal flight was carried out in late winter 83 years. Factory tests and flights took place from December to June 82 83 years. After that, the unit was transferred to the State Commission for further tests. All state tests for attack aircraft Yak-38M were completed in 85 year and failed.

The serial production of the attack hit the 1984 year. He produced in the same factory as its predecessor, in the city of Saratov, for four years. During this time it was created 50 aircraft.

Design features of attack aircraft Yak-38M

When upgrading the device, the main changes were made to the engines, since all the forces of the designers of this industry were involved. The engine nozzles and the location of the air intakes were changed. These innovations allowed to increase the lifting power of the device by 500 kilograms. The fuselage remained practically the same, only the place of the air intakes was changed. This unit received a new front landing gear, which was manageable. The armament of the aircraft was also refreshed. Due to the on-board equipment, the machine could perform daytime combat missions under any meteorological conditions.

Yak-38 cabin

Avionics has been added to the registration system and records all flight parameters, it was designated as a "tester UZL." To it was added to a funded system, "Edge-VM". It allows monitoring of all systems during flight. This has allowed designers to analyze what had to be finalized.

The fuselage of the machine is a semi-monocoque stringer with variable section. A feature of the car was that the front and tail parts are detachable, which has greatly simplified the installation or repair of the main engine. The cockpit has been made in the ventilation variant and can maintain normal climatic conditions for the pilot when flying at high altitudes. To reduce the distance of passing cars when landing on the Yak-38M installed brake parachute-type PTC 36M.

The wings consisted of two spars, which were fastened by a scaffold beam. On the wings were installed ailerons and flaps of a movable type. The wings were arrow-shaped, and the sweep angle was 45 ° along the front part of the wing. The ailerons could be deflected by an angle of 24 °, and the trim tabs rotated at 17 °. The wing flaps provided a deflection angle of 35 °. As for the tail unit, it was represented by a fixed stabilizer. In addition, there were installed rudders, which changed the height and direction of the flight. The rudder can be maximally deflected by an angle of 30 ° in each direction, and the height trim can deviate to 17,5 ° also in two directions.

Yak-38m

All control rudders made bezbusterny system. An important role played by additional controls that provide excellent aerodynamics. Additional control systems are jet rudders, which are placed on the nose and tail of the machine body.

Chassis Yak-38M was represented by three pillars, which were installed pneumatic type wheels with low pressure. For a soft landing on the desks were provided oil-air shock absorbers. Front desk was manageable and allows control of the car on the runway. All-wheel drive system chassis equipped with braking systems.

Powerplant Yak-38M was presented PMD engine type P-28-300 and two lift units RD-38. The main engine was located in the middle section housing, on either side of him were air intakes. The engine was installed jet nozzle unregulated type, equipped with rotary nozzles. They were synchronized with each other and turned by a hydraulic system. Start power plant produces electric drive.

In the front section of the aircraft was equipped with two engines that produce vertical lift aircraft. They were directly behind the cockpit, equipped with an air intake. The nozzles of these engines were controlled with two valves. All engines apparatus worked on aviation fuel, which was taken in two tanks with a total capacity in 2750 kilos. One fuel tank was installed in the nose section between the engine unit and the second held the tail of the car.

Yak-38

For long-distance flights on the Yak-38M could install additional tanks, into which you can pour 400 kilos of fuel. The pilot was able to make his own adjustments in fuel consumption during the flight. To start the engines of the aircraft was equipped with a battery, which is placed directly at the engine.

Yak-38 characteristics:



Modification Yak-38M
Wingspan, m  
full 7.02
with folded wings 4.45
Length m 16.37
Height, m 4.25
Wing area, m2 18.41
Weight, kg  
empty aircraft 7500
normal takeoff GDP 10800
normal takeoff with the OHR 11800
fuel 2750
engine's type  
lifting and marching 1 turbojet P-28-300
lifting 2-38 TRD RD
Thrust, kgf  
lifting and marching X 1 6700
lifting X 2 3250
Maximum speed km / h  
at sea level 1210
on high 1080
Practical range, km  
normal 1100
during vertical takeoff 550
Combat range, km 250 -380
The maximum rate of climb, m / min 4500
Practical ceiling, m 11000
Max. operation overload 6
Crew 1
Armament: In 4-x external suspension - the maximum - 2000 kg payload, when GDP - 1000 kg
4 UR "air-air" P-60 or P-60M or RCC X 23M,
or P-2 60 and 2 500 kg. bomb
or 2h 500 2 kg bombs and NUR HC-16-57 (55-mm)
or P-2 60 and 2-23 container UPK with 23-mm
double-barreled gun GS-23L.

 

Yak-38U

Yak-38 - deck training aircraft Yakovlev, vertical takeoff and landing. Designed for training pilots of carrier-based aircraft. Yak-38U based on the board following the heavy aircraft carrier "Minsk", "Kiev", "Admiral Gorshkov" and "Novorossiysk".

History of the YAK-38U

The two-seat training Yak-36M modification was intended for training pilots, specifically for the development of vertical takeoff and landing. The development of such a machine presupposed the directive of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR from 27 December 1967. 4 March 1971. The Air Force established its requirements (they were agreed with the Navy aviation superiors). Yak-36M tests already conducted served as an additional stimulus. The aircraft received the designation Yak-36MU and the internal designation "VMU product". To stage "A" of his tests, a full-size model of the front fuselage was developed, demonstrating the equipment of the cabin. In February 1972 the joint commission of the Navy and the Air Force approved it.

Yak-38U

Yak-36M was characterized by compact dimensions, and all of its systems were as tight as possible inside the space. That's why it's not easy to add an instructor's cabin, which allows a normal review. Engineers decided to increase the front of the fuselage by placing the pupil in front of the instructor. To provide the instructor with a good overview, the nose of the aircraft was slightly tilted forward. Two separate cabins, located by the tenend, had a lantern. Also, to save the center of mass, we had to increase the tail section. As a result, the machine turned out to be disproportionately long, surprisingly reminiscent of a banana.

In addition, we had to solve the problem of emergency rescue pilots. Designers managed to realize (the first time in world practice) bailout forced synchronous instructor and student during a flight in a vertical position, if the situation becomes unsafe. Hand bailout were synchronized with a slight delay, only 0,6 sec., And allowed themselves chairs breeding trajectories bailout, which excluded the clash pilots.

Home Test

The first aircraft assembly was completed in March 23 1973 years. On the same day he entered a phase of "A" state trials held in Zhukovsky. Michael Deksbah 17 August first flew Yak-36MU (he was accompanied by Yak-28, he ruled that Yuri Michiko). Then he was made a series of flights, the main purpose of which - the calibration of the receiver air pressure and determination of the safe conditions of use of air machine.

Yak-38U

Then the VMU-1 product was delivered to Akhtubinsk, to the 8 test base of the Research Institute of Air Force. Chkalov. Since the end of September 1973 on 31 July 1974 have been tested. 25 October 1973 (after 1 month after arrival) Michael Deksbach performed the first two hovering on the car. A little later, in November-December of the same year, he performed a few more hovers while being on the instructor's place. In 1974, several more flights were made, including speed reduction to hover, launching of lift engines in flight. At an altitude of 5 thousand meters 22 March, the maximum speed was reached - 900 km per hour. Dexbach through 4 days made a flight along the semi-profile. And he took off vertically and was able to reach a speed of up to 900 km per hour before landing on an aircraft. He completed the first 30 March 1974 flight on the full profile.

During the stage of "A" was performed ninety-flight, which included both training and test flights. The results of this phase of the aircraft received positive reviews, although the state commission still advised to replace some of the equipment and avionics before the start of series production, and decided to continue the test sample.

Yak-38U

From April to September 1977 years on aircraft carrier "Kiev" passing phase "B" ship of state tests. According to its results we decided to take the aircraft into service. Then VMU-1 used to train pilots initially drill This user, and then in Saki (Crimea) at the airbase Novofedorivka. The car after the expiry of operation has been established as a monument.

Mass production

Documents for the start of series production were transferred to 1974 year Saratov Aviation Plant, as planned. In 1975 I was ready the first production aircraft. Serial numbers are assigned to individual aircraft, sometimes added to them "Y".

The State Research Institute of the Air Force tested the serial, in order to verify its controllability and stability after making changes on the results of the last stage of the "A". Vladilen Khomyakov was a test pilot, and replaced him with Viktor Vasenkov.

Yak-36 MU had such different from the test sample:

  • · Chassis with wide track;

  • · Modified air intakes;

  • · Ejection seats in the rescue of the crew;

  • · On the semiconductor electronic elements installed automatic control system;

  • · Dashboards cabins were slightly modified;

  • · Improved form of the keel;

  • · Change the position of the center of mass.

Since serial aircraft has no Recorder and test equipment, the assessment of its handling, features and operation of all systems was based on the experience of test pilots. Moreover, for the study of flight regimes applied testimony flight recorder.

20 April 1976 year on the results of these tests, the head of the State Research Institute of the Air Force developed the report. It dealt with the characteristics of the aircraft as a result of changes in its structure. Unfortunately, some of these improvements are insufficient and needed to take on these issues further measures.

Yak-38U

6 October 1976, the aircraft purchased a new index - Yak-38U. 27 December of the same year, the third serial Yak was sent to the State Research Institute of the Air Force to participate in the next stage ("B") of the state tests. From 8 April and until 12 September the aircraft was tested. The flights were carried out by test pilots V. Vasenkov, V. Khomyakov and V. Golub. On two machines during this time, forty flights were carried out, almost all of them were test flights. During the state tests, the aircraft carried out 130 flights. 15 November 1978 year the order of the Minister of Defense Yak-38U took on arms. As for the serial production, it went simultaneously with the Yak-38 (four or five cars per year). Prior to 1985, 33 serial aircraft were produced at the Saratov aircraft plant, the last car had the 0308 number.

 

 

Yak-38 video:

 

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UC 38 - the first Soviet production aircraft vertical takeoff and landing. With its creation, we use the data obtained in the development and testing of experimental models Yak 36. The aircraft was equipped with an elevator - sustainer engine and two lift R28 RD 38. As it was installed automatic pilot bailout in emergency situations.
Total built Yak 231 38 different modifications. Its production was carried out at the Saratov aircraft factory with 1974 1989 of the year.

About this machine, I can only say what I read in a variety of sources. The most important feature of the Yak-38 / M / U aircraft can be called excessive gluttony. Just takeoff and landing took almost half of all the fuel that was on board. Due to this, you can not even talk about a very small radius of the ego action. Also, the combat load of the aircraft remains ridiculous. And in the management it was very complicated and not every pilot could cope with this device. Very interesting and peculiar can be called a system of ejection, which worked automatically in the case when at the moment of hovering machine roll exceeded the critical mark. In addition, the first machines of this class could not fly at all at their operation in low latitudes. But nevertheless modernized models were capable at least for something.

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