Yak-2 - Soviet bomber reconnaissance type. Total released 111 copies. For the first time the aircraft seen on AMC Frunze in February 1939 years. Already one species, it was clear that the aircraft developed in the Yakovlev Design Bureau. This is designated "aircraft 22». Factory tests appointed engaged Yu Piontkovsky. Its the same in the future, was appointed chief pilot Yakovlev. The chief engineer of the project became E. Adler.
Before 1938 years engineers from OKB engaged exclusively in small-engine aircraft type, but L. Schechter proposed to start development of the twin-engine multi-purpose aircraft. He calculated that the aircraft will have a maximum speed of flight.
According to the preliminary design wing area equal 27m2To give a considerable load on the wing. To reduce the weight of the structure decided to make a one-piece wing of solid wood, and steel pipes to make the fuselage. Quite interesting is the fact that in order to reduce drag vodoradiatory placed at the rear of the engine nacelles. Therefore, the navigator built into the contour of the fuselage. Opening fire from a machine gun to be possible only in the case of a partial opening of the lamp and lower fairing. Thanks to the many above completions engineers expect to receive a great rate - 600 km / h.
Arm reconnaissance bomber planned to a minimum. The total weight should not exceed 350 kg. It is also planned to install a camera and make a small bomb bay for lighting charges. Air machine was supposed to be a double. The navigator arrow was supposed to be at the center of the fuselage in a separate cabin.
The plane had planned to run in three versions: a fighter, scout bomber. Accordingly, the equipment and weapons they should be different. In mid-autumn 1938 years were drawn more or less clear picture of future aircraft. The fighter has been decided to install cannons. To him we decided to include two ventral cannon and machine gun 3 ShKAS, and the crew was reduced to one person.
Middle scout must have 8 20 kg caliber bombs located in the fuselage compartment, and two machine guns ShKAS, one fixed and one movable. Under radio "Dvina" gas tank placed behind fuselage aerial camera AFA-19. In the rear cabin provided a special "couch" with a porthole in the floor. At the same time, the bomber is not staffed radio and photographic equipment. It refers to the long-range bombers, so the supply of fuel is increased, and among the weapons particularly marked 6 100-kilogram high-explosive bombs. They are hung vertically.
According to the plan all variants of the aircraft had to have four wing tank capacity.
In January 1939 years' aircraft 22 »entered the airfield. He was unarmed and photographic equipment. Literally the first flight demonstrated the high speed of the aircraft - 500 km / h. But it's also been seen and defects. For example, the propulsion system malfunctioned. Oil often overheated as water, depending on the flight mode. According to the plans the aircraft was climbing in 7000 8,7 m per minute, but in reality a set took four times as much. He often made a break in the air to the engine is cold. And during landing of the overheated brake discs. Every 5 flight had to change the tire wheels.
It was decided to give preference to long-range bomber reconnaissance type. Some highlights designed again. The height of the fuselage in the cockpit of the navigator climbed 80 mm. Accordingly, the back of the aircraft became more sloping. Gargrot not add up, so we had to come up with new ways to use the angles of firing a rifle point located above. In January 40 years gathered together a special commission with the Air Force, which is to inspect and approve the draft.
In a number of shock weapons we decided to use the bomb bomb FAB 2-50 or the same FAB-100. In some embodiments, slipped fragmentation bombs AB and AO-8-10 20 in the number of pieces. On the outside of the suspension under the wing of the castle were two D2-MA for additional FAB or FAB-50-100. For the management of all the bombs he posted navigator because of his compartment were all the necessary controls, including optical sight OPB-1, electric ejector ESBR-3p and mechanical WM-8.
In testing the first production BB-22 1940 hit in March year. As a result of poor production machine significantly lowered its flight characteristics. The maximum speed has dropped to 515 km / h. The production model looked not just unfinished and crude. Across the fuselage were a lot of gaps, many fasteners poorly maintained the whole structure.
In general, the plane lost interest in itself, but with the advent of the Pe-2-22 BB altogether forgotten.
In its original form it had to be more powerful, fast and practical.
The design of the Yak-2
To increase the zone of fire empennage made two-keel. Himself fin and horizontal tail were solid wood. Handlebars rotation and height duralumin. Sheathing linen. Steering rotation was carried out by a cable, and the elevator - aileron. Tricycle landing gear in flight is able to get out. This process is carried out thanks to the electrically operated hydraulic pump. Braking pneumatic wheels.
Fuel placed in six tanks, two of which are located in the fuselage behind the cockpit, and four - in between the wing spars. For each identified by its own engine oil system. It is mounted in the nacelle. For cooling the answers at the bottom of the gondola oil cooler. Radiator Cooling water was placed in the tail section. Cold air intake through side tunnels and fissures, and discharge occurs through the tail of the nacelle and adjustable louvers.
The plane is very promising, and in many respects, including speed, was the first in the world for this class. Though it and overtook Pe-2, yet the aircraft became the basis for new, more advanced type of long-range bombers.
|Wing area, m2||29.40|
|engine's type||2-103 PD M|
|Power, hp||X 2 960|
|Maximum speed km / h||515|
|Cruising speed, km / h|
|Practical range, km||800|
|Rate of climb, m / min||650|
|Practical ceiling, m||8900|
|Armament:||one 7.62-mm machine gun ShKAS|
|to 900 kg bombs|
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