At the end of 70-ies Soviet designers had created a new carrier-based fighter, who had the designation Yak-141, NATO reporting - Freestyle, which means "Freestyle". This machine is a supersonic machine that is designed for bazirovki on aircraft carriers of various types. For a more efficient use of aircraft carriers, he had a system of vertical takeoff and landing. At the heart of the fighter were used earlier development of this class of machines, which is engaged in design bureau Yakovlev.
The Yak-141 was the third machine in the world that is able to overcome the speed of sound. The main task of the new aircraft carriers it was a cover of the enemy forces. Also, it should exceed the air forces of the enemy and conduct long-range and short-range air combat. In addition, this machine can attack enemy positions and ground. The development of the Yak-144 began to engage only in 1970 year, and held it for seven years. For the first time this machine touched the deck of a ship in 1991 year.
History Design Yak-141
The first active study for the project was started in the year 73, designers planned this machine as supersonic aircraft and prepares it for mass production. In the summer of 1974 issued a decree of the Council of Ministers, which spoke of the beginning of a new VTOL. Here it was prescribed deadlines, and finished device. Initially, the car was designed with a single PMD, which should provide traction in 15 thousand kgs, but later it was decided to install two engines. As for the layout of lifting engines, the designers also worked on a variety of options, among which was the installation of engines in the bow. But it soon became clear that this scheme is inefficient. So was the decision to place the settings in the same way as it was in the Yak-38.
In the midst of 80 years we have been resolved all the issues that concerned the layout of the device, after which the Yakovlev Design Bureau to initiate a thorough revision of all devices and assemblies. At that time it was started designing alternative engine type D-30, but soon these developments were stopped by Yakovlev. In the same year it created the first full-scale functioning scale model cars, which was approved by the state commission. After that we started the creation of the first four units of the Yak-141. Each of the four cars had to pass various tests and trials both in flight and on the ground. It is also planned to create a tandem version, which had planned to use for pilot training.
Flight tests planned to begin in early 82 years, but there were problems with the rotary nozzle propulsion engine. Designers had to work a lot of different options for the design of the nozzle. Because of this problem, the state tests had to be postponed on 1985 year.
Design Features Yak-141
The aircraft was built under the scheme with a cantilever design vysokoplana housing, the machine is in the normal scheme of aerodynamics. In the manufacture of composite materials have been used, the number of which was 26% by weight of the whole structure. The remaining mass was made of aluminum alloys, which are highly resistant to corrosion. A small number of parts were made of stainless steel and titanium alloys.
Housing semi-monocoque type with a rectangular cross-section. To improve the efficiency of vertical rise from the bottom of the machine housing have been installed special plates. The tail of the aircraft had a parachute system, which was used in the standard landing on the runway. Basically, this system was used on failure of rotation of the nozzle.
Wing unit manufactured in a trapezoidal form, it had a low elongation. The root of the nodules had. The wing was very well thought out, as it ensures the development of supersonic speeds. It allows for long flights and maintaining excellent aerodynamics and agility. Wings have arrow-shaped, the angle of which was 30 °. In order that the machine takes up less space on the deck, the wings had the opportunity to develop.
The plumage of the back of the aircraft has dvuhkilevoe type of structure, it is attached with the beams to the console housing. Between the beams placed nozzle propulsion engine. The plumage of the tail consists of rudders and stabilizers, the scope of which 5,9 meters.
The machine is equipped with two air intakes, which are rectangular in shape and are adjustable. Adjustment of air by means of a horizontal wedge. The air intakes are equipped with valves, which provide better air flow during takeoff.
Chassis Yak-141 represented by three pillars that have a lever diagram of the structure. All racks have one wheel, but the rear rack equipped with large-diameter wheels. The system chassis is a powerful and reliable, it can survive a very strong impact on the ground.
As for the power plant Yak-141, then there should be noted that it is represented by three engines, namely the main boosters and two lifting. Lifting march installation is designated R79V-300 and occupies a central place in the cabinet. The engine itself is a turbojet-powered plant, which is equipped with an afterburner, a vector control system.
The feature of this unit can be called that it the rotors rotating in opposite directions. In the combustion chamber set unique vortex burner. Most unique in this machine can be called a vector rotation system which changes the angle between the direction of thrust to 95 °, wherein the operation of the engine can not be changed. This powerplant in afterburner attached Yak-141 15,5 thrust thousand kgs.
|in the deployed position||10,10|
|Aircraft Length m||18,30|
|Wing area, m2||31.70|
|Fuel Weight, kg|
|in internal tanks||4400|
|Maximum take-off weight, kg|
|during the run-up 120 m||19500|
|during vertical takeoff||15800|
|Engine type (thrust, kgf)|
|lifting and marching||1 turbofan P-79 (1h15500 / 1h9000)|
|lifting||TRD RD 2-41 (2h4260)|
|Maximum speed km / h|
|near the ground||1250|
|at an altitude of 11 km||1800|
|Ferry range, km|
|when GDP at ground||650|
|GDP at the height of 10-12 km||1400|
|Practical range, km|
|near the ground||1010|
|at an altitude of 10-12 km||1400|
|at an altitude of 10-12 km from the PTB||2100|
|Combat range, km||690|
|Loitering time, h||1,5|
|Practical ceiling, m||15000|
|Max. operation overload||7|
|Armament:||One 30-mm cannon GSH-301 (120 cartridges).|
|In the four and later six underwing pylons can be suspended SD-class air-to-P or P-77-27-Range and P-73 short-range or P-60 close air combat and air-to-surface X-25, X-31|
|gun mount (23 mm, 250 rounds) or starting blocks NAR caliber from the 80 240 mm up to six bombs caliber 500 kg.|
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