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Yakovlev Yak-12


Yak-12 - light multipurpose transport vehicle was created in the KB under the control of AS Yakovlev. The new aircraft was tested in 1946 year. Almost immediately began mass production. The main version of the Yak-12 has good flight data for the class of machines. The aircraft had a radio, and devices that enable flight in bad weather and at night. The modified Yak-12M produced in Poland and had the designation PZL-101 Gawron. Most of these aircraft is used to this day, many of them were used in the civil aviation and flight schools.


History of the Yak-12


AS Yakovlev and his assistants immediately after the war worked on the light air multi-purpose machines. The designers wanted to create a simple, cheap and unpretentious in operation plane that would be used for the transportation of mail, goods and passengers on short local lines, aero - to teach skydiving and towing plan as medical, plant nutrition fertilizer for aerial sowing, pollination of greenery.

Yak-12 video

In 1946, the aircraft has passed the test. Among several options, the most successful was the car with the motor in the AI-14 240 hp


In terms of development and reconstruction of the national economy in 1940-ies. said: "To develop and restore the local airlines, to develop mass ... special use aircraft for pest control with / x, the sanitary service of the population ..." This was the reason for the development of a new aircraft that would replace at-2.


Under the scheme Yak-12 - strut-braced high with strut-braced tail and fixed landing gear. His two-spar wooden wing has fabric covering, is equipped with fixed slats and flaps plane type. Metal frame, feathers, sheathed blade. The farm is the basis of the fuselage. It is welded from steel pipes. Boarding in the tail of linen (on a wooden formwork) in the bow - duralumin. The cab car type quadruple. If necessary, it can be right to establish special stretcher to transport a patient. On the first aircraft engine installed in 160 hp and cooling M-11FR-1.

Yak-12 types

Over the years, the scheme design and characteristics of the aircraft is constantly changing. First, it uses a mixed scheme with the gradual replacement of wood aluminum. Remained unchanged linen-covered aircraft.

Yak-12 video


Yak-12 in its original form was a double and was intended for the Air Force as an ambulance and connected. Fuselage truss consisting of hromansilevyh pipes, wooden slats were formwork design mixed, two-spar wing wooden frame, frame tail and ailerons dyuralyuminevy. V-shaped wing podskovy who converged at the sites of attachment of the chassis. Fixed duralumin liner at a constant chord wing panels provide a large angle of attack. Chassis pyramidal type, which was introduced feed-back lines, contributing to a decrease in resistance. Main brake wheel 600h180 mm, and the tail, respectively, 200h110 mm. Posting control rope. You can set the skis.

Wing - 23,86 m2 equipped with slats that can improve the quality of planting and improve the safety of the pilot.

Yak-12 flight

The basic version has good data for the class of machines. The speed - up to 220 kilometers per hour, with landing - 90 km per hour, the ceiling - 4500 m. Range of 760 km. Empty 1 plane weighs a ton. Acceptable (normal) take-off weight of 1450 kg. Yak-12 equipped with radio equipment and which allow to fly in bad weather and at night.


Modifications of the Yak-12

  • Yak-12S - sanitary plane is designed for one patient.

  • Yak-12SKH - is agricultural aircraft for pollination, a chemical spray tank, located under the fuselage.

  • Yak-12R - related machine CAF and the Air Force. It has a more powerful engine - 260 hp (AI-14R). The opener is installed in the rear - brake hook, which is produced when boarding the primer to reduce mileage.

  • Yak-12A - machine tapered wing, with one strut and slats.

  • Yak-12M - aircraft designed for passenger 3, characterized by an elongated tail section, the new forkil and plumage.

Yak-12 cabin

Yak-12 characteristics:

Modification Yak-12
Wingspan, m 12.00
Aircraft Length m 8.36
Height, m 3.76
Wing area, m2 21.60
Weight, kg  
empty aircraft 830
maximum take-off 1185
engine's type 1 PD M-11FR
Thrust, kN X 1 160
Maximum speed km / h 194
Cruising speed, km / h 169
Practical range, km 810
Flight duration, h 4
Practical ceiling, m 3000
Crew 1
Payload: 2 355 kg passenger or cargo





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After the war A. Yakovlev, bearing in mind the success of the passenger AIR-6, started to create light multipurpose aircraft Yak-12 for the needs of the domestic civil aviation. The new machine was to serve the local airline, carrying small cargoes transportation (up to 350 kg) or two passengers. Cleaning option provided transporting a patient on a stretcher, accompanied by paramedics. Modification of the Yak-12SKH designed for use in agriculture in the country, equipped with special devices for the treatment of fields from the air. Aero clubs were used as towing aircraft for dropping parachutists.
Big problems with the developers did not arise, but it was a case where the Yak-12 almost "summed up under the monastery" its designer. The pilot was unable to land on 50-area provided personally IV Stalin. The problem was not in the car, but production was stopped. Only after the death of the leader of the An-12 program was restored. In addition to the USSR, the aircraft was manufactured in Poland and China. Licensed Polish version of the machine was named PZL-101 Gawron.
Many of the "twelve" continue to fly while remaining one of the most popular aircraft among collectors aircraft. The cost of the rare Yak-12 or "Gawron" comparable to the price of new cars or FordFocus Pegout 3008.

Yak-12 probably the first car Yakovlev, which is designed for civilian use. Despite the fact that he began to be made at the end of 40-ies of the last century, and it is used at the moment. My friend and now earns money with this machine. It uses the Yak-12 as the plane for skydiving. With ego words I can say that he is satisfied the aircraft, only drawback is the cost of fuel and it is now quite difficult to find spare parts.