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Fighter
Military aviation
Types of fighters. History fighters.

Types of fighters.History fighters.

 

Of all the plowing sky military fighter winged machines remained the most speed and maneuverability. Only their weapons has become much more powerful, and the detection of the enemy - more sophisticated and perfect. Despite the "predatory" name fighters are more defenders than attackers, and the offensive almost do not apply.

They are used to escort and protect the bombers, transport aircraft and civilian aircraft from enemy interceptors, as well as for the protection of objects on the ground from the air attacks. Much less fighters used to destroy ground and sea targets.

Some military engineers claim that in the future role of the fighter can easily perform more versatile UAVs. At the moment, the development of such UAVs is still under way, but some of them are already doing a fine job with the tasks of the point of destruction of ground objects. This approach is also interesting that the use of unmanned fighter aircraft will significantly reduce losses among the personnel. Themselves phones will cost much cheaper, and performance characteristics are not affected by restrictions to the human body.

Apart from the above mentioned types of fighters, there are also multi-purpose (designed to destroy ground and air forces of the enemy), and interceptors (to protect ground targets from air attack). It is entertaining the fact that, unlike the rest of the world fighter aircraft in the Russian Air Force so the boundary between the fighters disappeared. New weapons Su and MiG-27-29 possible to erase the boundaries between front, deck and air defense aviation. These aircraft can cope with all tasks.

History fighter

The first air fights happened during the First World War, when there was a need for special airplanes for the destruction of air targets. The first fighters are reconnaissance vehicles, which were re-equipped for aerial combat. Their flight speed was 150 km / h. The crew consisted of two people: a pilot and a rifleman. At that time, the navigator used as weapons dumbbells, cannonballs and metal bars. The fighter came to the enemy aircraft from above and dumped heavy objects on it. Less than a month later, air battles improved - the navigator began to take a machine gun or a pistol.

A little later, the engineers came up with a new device - a turret that allowed the machine gun rotate 360о. It was installed behind the pilot. Although the shooter and fired at the rear hemisphere, he could not conduct a fire in the frontal zone, the most actual for the fighter. The course machine gun was not mounted because of the screw. But soon the French pilot R. Garros came up with a system that allows shooting through a screw. The design of the device was the following: metal corners were installed at the base of the propeller blades. Their attachment was such that when the bullet hit, it ricocheted into a safe area for the aircraft and pilot. The main drawback was the loss of 10% ammunition. Inventor A. Fokker came up with a synchronizer of shooting, which allowed to shoot straight through the plane of the screw, not catching it and not losing ammunition.

After the First World War, many states have realized the value of such terrible weapons, began to simulate and improve the new types of fighters. Thus, plywood biplanes turned into all-metal monoplane with closed cockpit. The first representative of the new generation - Junkers DI At the time, the new fighters were several machine-guns and speeds up to 450 km / h.

By the beginning of the Second World War fighter aircraft was a well-formed class of military equipment. The main world powers possessed several basic types of fighters. In Germany Me-110, Bf-109 of different modifications are especially noted. In the USSR there were I-16 and I-153, in England - "Hurricane" and "Spitfire." More developed in this respect were Japan, the United States and France. By the beginning of hostilities in Europe, designers have not yet grasped the most important advantage of fighters - maneuverability or speed. At that time, it was difficult to create something combining the two characteristics, and therefore the schemes for these or other aircraft differed from each other. After the outbreak of the war and gaining experience during combat air operations, everyone realized that one engine is much better than two. Almost throughout the war, the main industrial states have not issued a single modification of biplane fighters. Only American "Lighting" received a relative development.

The huge demand in the fighter during the Second World was based on the need for continued support for the assault and bomber aircraft. It was during this period have been clarified and the basic ways of applying the tactics of military aircraft, especially fighters. Further development led to the creation of the Yak-9B, which was planned as an improved model with more efficient shock abilities. It is this aircraft was the first step towards the emergence of fighter-bombers.

With the further development of fighter aviation piston models simply upgraded to their last possibility. But the plane on the propeller could not overcome the sound barrier, which designers wanted so much to achieve. At the end of the war, Germany was the first to launch the production of jet fighters - Me-262, Non-162, missile fighters - Me-163. They were faster than any in the world at that time, and, naturally, had significantly better flight characteristics. But the end of the war was near, the anti-Hitler coalition was already at the walls of Germany and a huge part of the military factories and factories was destroyed. Small produced batches of new fighters could not make a significant contribution to the further development of events.

During the 60-ies in the ranks of the Air Force of different countries began to arrive supersonic fighters. They could develop a speed almost double the sound. The practical ceiling increased to 20 km. And radar stations and air-to-air missiles were used as new equipment. This development was not accidental. The main engine of this modernization was the cold war between the US and the USSR. This or that country could easily send bombers to carry out bombing of nuclear weapons. Therefore, for a quick and effective interception, new supersonic fighters were required. Thus, in the conflicting countries, including Europe, airplanes began to appear, although they differed in some data, but still in terms of flight performance and aggregate attributes belonged to the second generation of fighters.

A special contribution to the further development was made by the modernization of anti-aircraft missiles, which completely removed the possibility of bombing ground targets from the air. Naturally, the accompanying aviation began to change as an application. Beginning to appear the third generation of fighters - "Mirage" F-1, J-37 "Wiggen", MiG-23. Then followed the build-up of aviation muscles in terms of the appearance of the fourth generation. The first power that managed to launch such a fighter was the US - F-4S "Phantom". After it began to appear F-15 "Eagle", F-15, "Sparky" TF-15A. The USSR also did not lag behind - Su-27, MiG-29 and -31.

But the US was able to take over the initiative to create the world's most fearsome fighters. The fifth generation - F-22 Raptor -Start develop even in 86-year and completed only 2001-m. Two years later, he was taken into service. In parallel with their American counterparts to develop a fifth generation fighter performed engineers OKB Sukhoi. The first tests of the Russian T-50 2009 began in the year. Until now, the characteristics of the new air vehicle are not known.

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However, modern combat vehicles of this type are becoming more universal, gradually turning into a fighter-bomber. As for the interception, they have almost disappeared - they were replaced by the missile defense system.

 

Among modern fighters can be divided into three major classes:

  1. front-line fightersDesigned to gain air superiority over the battlefield
  2. fighter-bombersMultirole fighter
  3. carrier-based fighterBased on aircraft carriers.

 

Since the first jet fighters had already had four generations of combat vehicles. Recently, the first samples of the fifth-generation aircraft.

Experts called the generation of all types of military equipment produced in different countries, have similar combat capabilities. This technique developed about the same time, and when it was created using similar technical solutions.

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The first generation of fighters, who was born in 50-ies of the last century, are machines that flew at subsonic speeds, not having electronic detection of the enemy - mostly armed with radar guns and small caliber.

A typical example is an American fighter F-86, 15 which had a ceiling kilometers and a speed of about a thousand kilometers per hour. During the Korean War, this plane was the only serious rival to the MiG-15 Soviet production. In the second generation of fighters was much famous machines with outstanding characteristics.

It was formed at the end of 50-X - the beginning of 60-ies of the last century. These machines could double the speed of sound, had a triangular wing, radar for detecting targets and guided missiles as the main weapon. In the third generation of fast war machines, the battle of electronic technology began. The speed and altitude of the aircraft did not change much, but their ability to detect and destroy the enemy at great distances increased. Simultaneously, models with a variable wing shape appeared, as well as capable of vertical take-off and landing, that is, not requiring large aerodromes.

Multipurpose fourth-generation fighters have fantastic speed and maneuvering data. They reach speeds up to 2, 5 thousand. Km / h, can fly at altitudes up to 20 km, with a height gain in just one minute. These aircraft can be hit at once to ten goals in a radius of more than seven hundred kilometers with precision of modern weapons.

 

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Fifth-generation fighter - the future of aviation. Much of them are aimed at creating maximum safety pilot and ensuring its full information about air and ground space. Modern materials of the body and wings provide a low profile of these aircraft for the radar and night vision devices.

All the elements of control of the aircraft and weapon system are concentrated in one unit and are controlled by a central computer. The maneuverability of the aircraft on the order of magnitude, even sophisticated machines third and fourth generations. Currently in service is only one fifth-generation fighter, and the rest are in the process of testing and refinement.

 

Military aviation

 

Classification of aircraft:


А

Administrative plane

Б

Bomber

В
Military transport aircraft

Air carrier

Г
The hybrid airship
Seaplane

Hypersonic aircraft

Д

twin-boom aircraft

И
Fighter

Fighter-bomber

К
counterinsurgency aircraft

Kosmoplan

Л

Flying Submarine

О

The orbital plane

П
Passenger plane
dive-bomber

Generation jet fighter

Р
missile carrier
rocketglider
Reactive plane

Regional aircraft

С
VTOL
Aircraft maintenance
The aircraft short takeoff and landing
Aircraft reconnaissance
Supersonic aircraft
High-speed bomber

Strategic bomber

Т
torpedo-boat

Transport aircraft

У
narrow-body aircraft
Training and combat aircraft

Training aircraft

Ш
wide-body aircraft
attack plane

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Opportunities and even the appearance of new fighter aircraft are not known to most people.
Today, more modern aircraft could fly. The non-production of 5 generation fighters is more intentional than forced. To make an airplane costing from 15 to 35mlrd. $ Some states have the opportunity, but consider it unprofitable. Probably there is no sense in investing huge amounts of money in a fighter that will become obsolete on "paper" by the time of mass production and will require roadblocks in the course of operation. In which there is no need today as in a combat vehicle. Therefore, the 5 generation fighters are produced in single units in order to further develop aviation and "paint" cars of the 6 generation.

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