Types of fighters.History fighters.
Of all the plowing sky military fighter winged machines remained the most speed and maneuverability. Only their weapons has become much more powerful, and the detection of the enemy - more sophisticated and perfect. Despite the "predatory" name fighters are more defenders than attackers, and the offensive almost do not apply.
They are used to escort and protect the bombers, transport aircraft and civilian aircraft from enemy interceptors, as well as for the protection of objects on the ground from the air attacks. Much less fighters used to destroy ground and sea targets.
Some military engineers claim that in the future role of the fighter can easily perform more versatile UAVs. At the moment, the development of such UAVs is still under way, but some of them are already doing a fine job with the tasks of the point of destruction of ground objects. This approach is also interesting that the use of unmanned fighter aircraft will significantly reduce losses among the personnel. Themselves phones will cost much cheaper, and performance characteristics are not affected by restrictions to the human body.
Apart from the above mentioned types of fighters, there are also multi-purpose (designed to destroy ground and air forces of the enemy), and interceptors (to protect ground targets from air attack). It is entertaining the fact that, unlike the rest of the world fighter aircraft in the Russian Air Force so the boundary between the fighters disappeared. New weapons Su and MiG-27-29 possible to erase the boundaries between front, deck and air defense aviation. These aircraft can cope with all tasks.
First air fights happened during the First World War, when there was a need for a special aircraft to destroy air targets. The first fighter is intelligence apparatus that overstaffed for dogfighting. Their flight speed was 150 km / h. The crew consisted of two people: a pilot and a gunner. At the time, the navigator used as weapons weights, cannonballs and metal bars. The fighter went to the enemy aircraft from above and dropped heavy objects on it. Less than a month dogfights were improved - the navigator began to take with a machine gun or a pistol.
A little later, the engineers came up with a new device - a turret that allowed the machine gun rotate 360о. Its installed behind the pilot. Although the shooter and fired back hemisphere, he could not fire on the most urgent for the fighter frontal zone. Course gun not mounted because of the screw. But soon the French pilot P. Garros came up with a system to shoot through the propeller. The design of the device was as follows - in the bottom of the propeller blades were installed metal corners. Their attachment was such that when she gets a bullet ricocheted to safety for the aircraft and the pilot region. The main drawback is the loss of 10% of ammunition. Inventor A. Fokker synchronizer invented fire, which allowed to shoot right through the propeller plane, not catching him without losing ammunition.
After the First World War, many states have realized the value of such terrible weapons, began to simulate and improve the new types of fighters. Thus, plywood biplanes turned into all-metal monoplane with closed cockpit. The first representative of the new generation - Junkers DI At the time, the new fighters were several machine-guns and speeds up to 450 km / h.
By the beginning of World War II fighter aircraft was well-formed class of military equipment. Major world powers have several main types of fighters. In Germany, particularly marked Me-110, BF-109 different modifications. In the USSR, possession-16 and 153 and-, England - "Hurricane" and "Spitfire". More developed in this respect were Japan, the United States and France. By the beginning of hostilities in Europe, the designers have not yet understand the main advantage with the fighters - maneuverability and speed. At that time it was difficult to create something combining two characteristics, so the scheme of those or other aircraft differed from each other. After the war and gain experience in combat aircraft operations all learned that one engine is much better than two. Almost throughout the war the major industrial nations have not released any modification biplanovyh fighters. Only American "Lightning" was a relative development.
The huge demand in the fighter during the Second World was based on the need for continued support for the assault and bomber aircraft. It was during this period have been clarified and the basic ways of applying the tactics of military aircraft, especially fighters. Further development led to the creation of the Yak-9B, which was planned as an improved model with more efficient shock abilities. It is this aircraft was the first step towards the emergence of fighter-bombers.
With the further development of fighter aircraft piston model is simply to upgrade to its latest features. But the plane on the propeller could break the sound barrier, so that the designers wanted to achieve. At the end of the war, Germany was able to begin production of the first jet fighters - the Me-262, not-162, missile destroyers - the Me-163. They were more speed than any in the world at that time, and, of course, has a much better performance characteristics. But the end of the war was near, anti-Hitler coalition was already at the walls, and a huge part of the German military factories had been destroyed. Smaller parties made new fighters were not able to make a significant contribution to the further development of events.
During 60-ies in the ranks of the Air Force around the world began arriving supersonic fighters. They can reach speeds of almost twice that of sound. Service ceiling increased to 20 km. And as the new equipment used radars and missiles "air-to-air." Such a development was not accidental. The main engine of this modernization was considered to the Cold War between the US and the USSR. A country could easily send bombers to carry out the bombing of nuclear weapons. Therefore, for fast and efficient pickup needed new supersonic fighters. Thus, in the conflicting countries, including Europe, began to appear aircraft, which, although they differ in some data, but still on the flight characteristics and the total layout featured belongs to the second generation of fighters.
Special contribution to the further development of the modernization made anti-aircraft missiles, which completely removed the possibility of the bombing of ground targets from the air. Naturally, the accompanying aircraft began to change as well as applications. Getting there is a third-generation fighter - "Mirage» F-1, J-37 «Viggen" MiG-23. This was followed by build-up of aircraft in terms of the appearance of the muscles of the fourth generation. First Power, which managed to launch such a fighter, US Steel - F-4S "Phantom." After it began to appear F-15 «Eagle», F-15A, "Sparky" TF-15A. Soviet Union also did not lag behind - Su-27, MiG-29 and -31.
But the US was able to take over the initiative to create the world's most fearsome fighters. The fifth generation - F-22 Raptor -Start develop even in 86-year and completed only 2001-m. Two years later, he was taken into service. In parallel with their American counterparts to develop a fifth generation fighter performed engineers OKB Sukhoi. The first tests of the Russian T-50 2009 began in the year. Until now, the characteristics of the new air vehicle are not known.
However, modern combat vehicles of this type are becoming more universal, gradually turning into a fighter-bomber. As for the interception, they have almost disappeared - they were replaced by the missile defense system.
Among modern fighters can be divided into three major classes:
- front-line fightersDesigned to gain air superiority over the battlefield
- fighter-bombersMultirole fighter
- carrier-based fighterBased on aircraft carriers.
Since the first jet fighters had already had four generations of combat vehicles. Recently, the first samples of the fifth-generation aircraft.
Experts called the generation of all types of military equipment produced in different countries, have similar combat capabilities. This technique developed about the same time, and when it was created using similar technical solutions.
The first generation of fighters, who was born in 50-ies of the last century, are machines that flew at subsonic speeds, not having electronic detection of the enemy - mostly armed with radar guns and small caliber.
A typical example is an American fighter F-86, 15 which had a ceiling kilometers and a speed of about a thousand kilometers per hour. During the Korean War, this plane was the only serious rival to the MiG-15 Soviet production. In the second generation of fighters was much famous machines with outstanding characteristics.
It happened at the end of 50-- early 60-ies. These machines could be twice the speed of sound, we had a delta wing, radar to detect targets and missiles as the main weapons. In the third generation of rapid armored battle began electronic technologies. Speed and high-altitude aircraft performance have not changed, but increased their ability to detect and destroy the enemy at great distances. At the same time, a model with a variable shape of the wing, and the ability to make vertical takeoffs and landings, that is not in need of large airfields.
Multipurpose fourth-generation fighters have fantastic speed and maneuvering data. They reach speeds up to 2, 5 thousand. Km / h, can fly at altitudes up to 20 km, with a height gain in just one minute. These aircraft can be hit at once to ten goals in a radius of more than seven hundred kilometers with precision of modern weapons.
Fifth-generation fighter - the future of aviation. Much of them are aimed at creating maximum safety pilot and ensuring its full information about air and ground space. Modern materials of the body and wings provide a low profile of these aircraft for the radar and night vision devices.
All the elements of control of the aircraft and weapon system are concentrated in one unit and are controlled by a central computer. The maneuverability of the aircraft on the order of magnitude, even sophisticated machines third and fourth generations. Currently in service is only one fifth-generation fighter, and the rest are in the process of testing and refinement.
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