Types of aircraft, their purpose and the requirements for them
Reconnaissance aircraft for reconnaissance range falls into near and far, and on the organizational affiliation - by the army and a military.
Distant (army) intelligence aircraft It caters to large units of land and sea forces.
Near (Branch) the nature of their work in the most re associated with higher tactical formation. She enters or organization in their composition (Aviation Branch), or betrayed them for a certain time depending on the needs.
Reconnaissance aircraft is the primary means of operational and a means of tactical reconnaissance.
fighter aircraft 4 divided into subgroups:
- a) having a multi-seat twin-engine fighter aircraft in service "
- b) having armed with twin single-engine fighters
- c) having armed with single twin-engine fighters
- g) having an armed single single-engine fighters.
The main purpose fighter aircraft - the destruction of enemy aircraft in the air and on the ground.
- a) in a fighting its application to the near - to solve their problems in the interest of the fight and the operation army ground troops and front and long - performs independent air operations for the benefit of the high command;
- b) bombers - on capacity and design-for light, medium and heavy.
By the light bomber planes are mainly single-engined with the flight of up to 5 Ltd. kg bomb load of about 500 kg.
For medium bomber are twin-engine aircraft with the flight of up to 10 t and bomb load (depending on the flight distance) from the 1 2 Ltd. to LLC kg.
For heavy bombers are twin-engine and four-engine aircraft with "gross weight of over 10-minute bomb load (depending on the flight distance) of up to 2 000 4 000 kg.
In addition to the bombers making bombing from horizontal flight, widely developed dive bombers.
dive-bomber - A special type of aircraft with high demands on his strength, able to withstand the overload those that develop during prolonged dive and exit. For example, during prolonged dive at an angle of more than 45 ° and up to 90 ° speed of the aircraft can be almost twice as much horizontal flight speed, t. E. The horizontal speed of the aircraft order
400-500 km at long dive can reach 800-900 km / h, or 220-250 m / s.
Bombers used bombs of varying destructive power and weight. They act against the troops, field engineering and long-sing-strengthen, train stations and buildings, airports, ships, factories, warehouses of military significance, political, economic and industrial centers of the enemy country, and so on. N.
Possible cases of the interaction of different types of aircraft
Diverse objects of attack, are both on the battlefield and in the various rear zones that require different means and methods of attack, has set the BBC a lot of imaginative challenges, the resolution of which one in any kind of aircraft on their own, without direct or indirect participation of another type of aircraft, possible tojb> ko in rare cases.
The interaction of different types of aircraft, each of its kind used in accordance with the strengths of its quality and the material of the aircraft.
The most typical case, the interaction of different types of aircraft are:
1) interaction of intelligence and fighter aircraft within range of enemy fighters when fighter aircraft covers the work of their reconnaissance aircraft;
2) interaction assault and bomber aircraft with fighter when necessary conquest of the air, when the first direct attack on vested aerodromes and other aviation facilities of the enemy, and the last - cover them from the air force of the enemy and destroy enemy aircraft in the air;
3) interaction assault aircraft, bombers and fighter aircraft in operations on objects in the operational rear of the enemy, when the direct perpetrator of the problem are the bombers; attack aviation contributes to the destruction of their land-based air defense systems and aircraft on the ground, and the fighter covers them in the air;
4) interaction assault aircraft, bombers and fighter aircraft at the combined impact on the objects located in the rear of the enemy, when the first two types of aircraft bombard objects, while the latter covers his aircraft from the air;
5) interaction of all kinds of aircraft with the involvement of the intelligence of the army and military aircraft, when it is necessary to put a massive attack by all means to win a decisive superiority (domination) in the air, or to achieve the most rapid effect in the enemy's rear, as well as in its rear breakouts front and airborne troops enemy .
The reaction can be operational and tactical. At the operational interaction is achieved a number of objectives aimed to achieve the same goal with the actions of the various items and goals. At the tactical coordination efforts are made to solve one problem, but using different methods and means of attack.
The procedure for submission of large groups of the Air Force, consisting of several compounds of different types of aircraft
Military aviation is usually used centrally, while in the hands of the Army, the High Command.
At the disposal of the army command, as a rule, will be part of a light army aviation consisting of legkobombardirovochnyh, assault and fighter formations (units) and reconnaissance units. Especially large saturation air units should be expected in the armies intended to shock action.
Direct determination of the forces (needed to perform different kinds of tasks set by the command of the army is on the chief of the Army Air Force, the choice of methods and means of the task given to commanders of air units.
Using Force in conjunction with each other in various kinds of military operations
In the counter operation. In the context of counter operations, possible mainly in the initial period of the war, the opponents will be at a considerable distance from each other. During this period, the army will need perhaps more
full of intelligence and seek to breach of RAM enemy mobility. Hence, the problem of aviation decay-on exploration and military operations by ground and air targets. In this aerial reconnaissance forced to work at a considerable depth, penetrating into the zone covered up enemy fighters, and interacting with its fighter aircraft.
Head-on collision is preceded by the concentration of a certain group of troops of thrown by rail, road and marching. To prevent the concentration of enemy forces, as well as for winning operational excellence (domination) in the air, providing freedom of action, are used: 1) bombers and attack aircraft to impact the paths of movement of troops, airfields and other aviation facilities; 2) fighter aircraft to cover the actions of the bomber and attack aircraft from enemy air forces and for independent action for the destruction of enemy aircraft in the air and on the ground.
Bombardment of enemy columns on the march, on ferries and recreational areas, as well as supply and discharge stations will require close interaction bomber, ground-attack and fighter aircraft.
The offensive operation. The main objectives of the offensive Army Air Force are:
a) achievement of operational or tactical air superiority;
b) the exploration of railways and underground routes that go to the front of the army action to locate reinforcements;
c) preparation of the implementation of aviation breakthrough defensive zone;
g) To promote the start-up breakthrough mobile groups;
d) obstacle reinforcements and haul supplies;
e) the disorganization of the enemy rear, and its management;
g) destruction of its reserves and the technical means of struggle;
h) the fight against airborne troops;
and) fighting raid in their rear parts, and the cavalry of the enemy.
All these tasks require interaction mainly intelligence, bomber, fighter and attack aircraft.
The defensive operation. The defensive operation command of the army, as a rule, will have aForce limitation than coming. In part they are usually included fighter aircraft and assault the compound, and, if possible, and legkobombardirovochnye.
Aviation Cooperation in this operation will take place:
a) in their cover-up fighter aircraft reconnaissance aircraft, the leading intelligence, surveillance and control of the battlefield artillery fire;
b) at the joint legkobombardirovochnoy attacks, attack, fighter, and sometimes intelligence aircraft on enemy airfields for the conquest of tactical air superiority;
c) for joint action against the enemy broke through the front, or when landing aircraft landing in the rear of the enemy troops.
Methods and goals of interaction of various types of aircraft
Interaction with providing the Air Force actions
Ensuring that the work w other type of aircraft to counter enemy aircraft can be built based on its own software ( "self"). In this case, the aircraft rely only on their own weapons, speed and suddenness, and concerted action both crew and aircraft group. The scouts, bombers and others. May be combined in a fairly large group fighting. Supporting each other with fire, leading a defensive battle with enemy fighters, these aircraft, going in a group, perform their direct functions.
Self-sufficiency can be achieved and the application of this type of aircraft or aircraft maintenance data connection. This aircraft of the same type, but with a smaller load, and with a large supply of ammunition and ammunition for machine guns and cannons (if any). On the software aircraft tasked with tracking (cover) of the planes coming in less maneuverable, larger build.
Aircraft maintenance is bordered by protected and reflect the attack.
Most operations require special maintenance aircraft, single, double and multi-fighters. That software may be:
1. Fight against enemy fighter aircraft in the area (more or less extensive) to capture temporary tactical air supremacy (in the interests of a particular air or ground operations); This (temporary) air supremacy achieved the expulsion of enemy fighter aircraft (by patrolling, "ambush" in the air and on the ground, and so on. d.) and its destruction.
2. Simultaneous a blow to the extermination of the enemy aircraft, departing in necks or ready to fly out to counter our bomber, assault and reconnaissance aircraft (in the area of the object of bombing, reconnaissance, or directly above), and a blow to the fighters is applied, or simultaneously with a bang bombers, or in front of it ( preemptive action - and extortion attack, or an attack on the ground).
3. Direct support of fighter aircraft.
4. Neutralization of enemy aircraft to the desired time bombarding airfield airfields and flight termination with them or simultaneously bombarding the airfield and destroy the enemy air force materiel. This method in combination with the other will be one of the most crucial subject of accounting and knowledge of air conditions and actions of the enemy Air Force (surveillance, monitoring).
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