Requirements to the helipad
When selecting sites are taken into account: the advantages of helicopters as an apparatus vertical takeoff and landing; noise level - to ensure minimal noise on the terrain, "wind rose" so to minimize the off-crosswind landing with a fair and rule; the possibility of making an emergency landing at any time of arrival or departure routes.
If the heliport is located in airport transportation on the roof of the terminal building, apron area, adjacent to the terminal building, t. E. In close proximity to areas of registration of passengers is ensured by a certain interval in the movement of aircraft and helicopters in izbezhanie- their clash during takeoff and landing and taking into account that. helicopters COX slower aircraft, eliminated overlapping routes taxiing aircraft and helicopters.
The airport grounds are built at ground level and not on the roof of buildings. Typically, they are fitted on the platform for aircraft, as it is simpler, cheaper and more convenient.
Selecting a helipad shall be based on four key factors: rational layout and the class of the heliport; safety in the area of the heliport, the impact on the airspace open to flights; the impact on the surrounding populated areas.
Rational location and class of the heliport. Heliports are located on the ground or on buildings above the ground or above the water. As a rule, the lowest material costs heliports constructed at ground level. Class heliport is primarily dependent on the flight characteristics of helicopters, on the desired type of facilities and security. So, if you need a minimum of posadochnogo- equipment for a heliport and is not required to ensure facilities, it is enough to a small area. Due to the fact that the helicopter a short span line should provide convenience for passengers and saves time when selecting the geographical areas defined sources of demand for transportation, compared to the total travel time on helicopters with a total time of travel in the othermodes of transport. For this, the choice of sites is considered the plan of the city airports. When selecting sites accounted for a modern general plan naselennogo- point transport plan and the whole region - since they contain information on the intended use of the land, and- data on land transport system area.
Safety in the area of the heliport. The availability of appropriate approaches to air vertodromu- main factor of safety. The trajectory of takeoff and landing should take place on the terrain where it is possible to make an emergency landing. This condition is necessary for all single-engine helicopters; many motor helicopters in-state for a long time to make the flight and engine failure. The recommended approach and take-off path, located on motorways and open plots of land without hindrance. Avoid the path of urban construction sites, sports facilities and populated areas. Accurate assessment of the location for the construction of a heliport ploschadki- considering possible obstacles checked flying qualities of the helicopter, combined with a detailed ground survey area. If? heliport in the area, there are special emergency landing sites, which makes the operation of the heliport acceptable. that all measures are taken to ensure the continued preservation of these sites. For example, some heliports in-the US has been forced to change the volume of work due to the elimination of such sites due to the use of land for other purposes.
Impact on airspace. All of the proposed site are studied in order to determine the outpouring of their operation to the safe and effective use of air transport. This element of site selection is very important, especially when located near the airport and other aviation companies. Where prisutstvie- helicopters may hinder landing operations aircraft, heliports do not build.
The impact on the surrounding populated areas. For the successful construction of a heliport in advance the need to introduce living near the people, especially the owners of immovable property, with the specific features of the helicopters that will use their in-close proximity to human settlements. A very important factor that is taken into account in the design of heliports - is the level of noise generated by helicopters. Heliports are located so that the noise does not interfere with the surrounding population. Since noise is especially great for taking off and landing paths, trying to place the site
so that in the path area or in the immediate vicinity of the residential area it was not.
Dimensions runways are taken on the basis of the geometric dimensions of helicopters (rotor diameter, length), including the heaviest machines that are in the design stage, but that may be operated at the site, taking into account the characteristics of their flight. This takes into account the way takeoff or landing - vertical (in the helicopter) or a path (an aircraft), as well as the condition of the air approaches - open or restricted.
In general, the following dimensions of the site: 120 length m, width m 60.
In some cases the area can be a little smaller, for multi-engine helicopters, vertical take-off.
Soil or covering areas must withstand not only the normal load of most heavy-lift helicopters, and shock, which can be a crash landing. This is especially important on elevated heliports, where the load factor is of paramount importance.
Heliports in the territory of the hot climate areas or located at a considerable height above sea level should have increased the size of runways, which are determined by performance characteristics of helicopters, operated on these heliports.
Taxiways platform, if any, should have the form, size, quantity, depending on the type of helicopter, the required number of parking places, maintenance requirements and the necessary equipment, traffic and turn-around time of helicopters, which can vary from 3 minutes when the engine is not stop to 15 minutes when refueling is performed.
On heliports with high traffic area allocated waiting helicopters.
The surfaces areas are made as straight as possible, with good drainage, free of dust, dirt, stones and other objects that could damage the engine or the propeller blades.
Heliport not require large space, and their construction is not much effort, so they are usually not expensive. Safe and effective heliports can be created through the use of a small fenced grassy or paved area.
Some countries (Japan, England, US), developed their rational requirements for the design and construction of heliports, providing them with the means of fire protection concerns in accidents.
The following discusses some of the guidance on the design surface and elevated heliports developed by the US Federal Aviation Administration. The basic factors that are taken into account in the design and construction of heliports. Decision-making is based on the practical operation of the known types of helicopters, generalization of experience designing and building heliports and landing sites in the United States.
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