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Helipad
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Helipad

Helipad

 

 

Requirements to the helipad

When selecting sites are taken into account: the advantages of helicopters as an apparatus vertical takeoff and landing; noise level - to ensure minimal noise on the terrain, "wind rose" so to minimize the off-crosswind landing with a fair and rule; the possibility of making an emergency landing at any time of arrival or departure routes.

Helipad 1

If the heliport is located in airport transportation on the roof of the terminal building, apron area, adjacent to the terminal building, t. E. In close proximity to areas of registration of passengers is ensured by a certain interval in the movement of aircraft and helicopters in izbezhanie- their clash during takeoff and landing and taking into account that. helicopters COX slower aircraft, eliminated overlapping routes taxiing aircraft and helicopters.

The airport grounds are built at ground level and not on the roof of buildings. Typically, they are fitted on the platform for aircraft, as it is simpler, cheaper and more convenient.

Selecting a helipad shall be based on four key factors: rational layout and the class of the heliport; safety in the area of ​​the heliport, the impact on the airspace open to flights; the impact on the surrounding populated areas.

The rational location and class of the heliport. Heliports are placed on the ground or on structures above the ground or above water. As a rule, heliports at the ground level are built with the least material costs. The class of the heliport primarily depends on the flight characteristics of the helicopters, on the type of structures and provision required. So, if you need a minimum of landing equipment for a single heliport and no support facilities are required, then there will be a small enough area. Due to the fact that helicopter lines of short duration should provide passenger convenience and time savings, when selecting sites, geographic sources of demand for transportation are determined, the total travel time for helicopters is compared with the total travel time for othersmodes of transport. For this, the choice of sites is considered the plan of the city airports. When selecting sites accounted for a modern general plan naselennogo- point transport plan and the whole region - since they contain information on the intended use of the land, and- data on land transport system area.

Helipad 2

Safety of flights in the heliport area. The availability of appropriate air approaches to the heliport is the main safety factor of flights. The trajectory of take-off and landing should pass over the terrain where it is possible to make emergency landing. This condition is necessary for all single-engine helicopters; Many motor helicopters are able to fly for a long time and with a failed engine. Recommended approach and takeoff trajectories are located above highways and open land areas without obstacles. Avoid trajectories over areas of urban construction, sports grounds and densely populated areas. Accurate assessment of the location of the site-for the construction of the heliport, taking into account possible obstacles, is checked by the flight performance of the helicopter in conjunction with a detailed ground survey of the site. If? In the area of ​​the heliport there are special emergency landing areas, which makes the operation of the heliport acceptable. Then all measures are taken to ensure the permanent safety of these sites. Thus, some heliports in the USA were forced to change the volume of work due to the elimination of such sites in connection with the use of land for other purposes.

Helipad

Impact on airspace. All of the proposed site are studied in order to determine the outpouring of their operation to the safe and effective use of air transport. This element of site selection is very important, especially when located near the airport and other aviation companies. Where prisutstvie- helicopters may hinder landing operations aircraft, heliports do not build.

Influence on the surrounding populated areas. For the successful construction of the heliport, it is necessary to familiarize in advance the population living near it, especially the owners of real estate, with the specific features of the helicopters, which will make it possible to use them in close proximity to populated areas. The factor that is taken into account when designing heliports is very important is the noise level created by helicopters. Heliports are arranged in such a way that noise does not disturb the surrounding population. Since the noise is particularly large under the take-off and landing trajectories, try to place the sites

so that in the path area or in the immediate vicinity of the residential area it was not.

Helipad

Dimensions runways are taken on the basis of the geometric dimensions of helicopters (rotor diameter, length), including the heaviest machines that are in the design stage, but that may be operated at the site, taking into account the characteristics of their flight. This takes into account the way takeoff or landing - vertical (in the helicopter) or a path (an aircraft), as well as the condition of the air approaches - open or restricted.

In general, the following dimensions of the site: 120 length m, width m 60.

In some cases the area can be a little smaller, for multi-engine helicopters, vertical take-off.

Soil or covering areas must withstand not only the normal load of most heavy-lift helicopters, and shock, which can be a crash landing. This is especially important on elevated heliports, where the load factor is of paramount importance.

Heliports in the territory of the hot climate areas or located at a considerable height above sea level should have increased the size of runways, which are determined by performance characteristics of helicopters, operated on these heliports.

Helipad 3434

Taxiways platform, if any, should have the form, size, quantity, depending on the type of helicopter, the required number of parking places, maintenance requirements and the necessary equipment, traffic and turn-around time of helicopters, which can vary from 3 minutes when the engine is not stop to 15 minutes when refueling is performed.

On heliports with high traffic area allocated waiting helicopters.

The surfaces areas are made as straight as possible, with good drainage, free of dust, dirt, stones and other objects that could damage the engine or the propeller blades.

Heliport not require large space, and their construction is not much effort, so they are usually not expensive. Safe and effective heliports can be created through the use of a small fenced grassy or paved area.

Some countries (Japan, England, US), developed their rational requirements for the design and construction of heliports, providing them with the means of fire protection concerns in accidents.

The following discusses some of the guidance on the design surface and elevated heliports developed by the US Federal Aviation Administration. The basic factors that are taken into account in the design and construction of heliports. Decision-making is based on the practical operation of the known types of helicopters, generalization of experience designing and building heliports and landing sites in the United States.

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