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Mi-1. History of creation. First flight. Combat application. Characteristics. Photo. Video.
The USSR was the experience in the development and operation of rotary-wing aircraft still in the pre-war period. These were the gyros. The first serial helicopter became Mi-1.
Mi-1, which according to NATO classification was called "hare" - multi-purpose helicopter, developed in the USSR in the OKB. Mile at the end of 40-ies of XX century. He also became the first production helicopter in the Union.
At the beginning of the design called GM-1 (helicopters Mil-1). It was first raised in the air in the autumn of 1948 years. Serial production of the model took place in the Soviet Union on the 1954 1960 year, as well as in Poland (Swidnik) from the 1956 1965 for years. Over the years 2680 built helicopters.
History of creation.
After World War II, Yakovlev Design Bureau. Mile began development of an experimental three-helicopter variant, called EG-1. After testing a sample to test, the Commission approved the project with strong recommendations to a number of changes, based on the possibility of improving certain systems.
The first helicopter OKB. Mile GM-1 designed as connected. The cabin, except the pilot, put two more people. At the heart of the design is a classic single-rotor scheme with the tail and carrying a three-bladed propellers. During the development it was taken into account the experience of foreign and domestic helicopter, but the design engineers sought to create a completely new original model.
It was redesigned rotor head, inserted vertical and horizontal joints. The efficiency of this design more than the US counterparts of the time, besides increased practicality and convenience in the management of helicopter. The horizontal and vertical joints were used needle bearings. On axial joint are one thrust and radial ball bearings 2. Lowering the oscillation of the blades provide friction dampers.
Designers Mi-1 at the initial design stage were Kotikov AK Rusanovich and NG, and finalized the Malahovskiy AE, which became known as the founder of systems "Mi".
The first three test sample Mi-1 built in Kiev because of the lack of OKB. Mile necessary industrial base.
Flight tests of GM-1 (prototype of the Mi-1) led the test engineer GV Remezov. Final assembly of the helicopter at the aircraft factory in Kiev, conducted under the direction of MN Pivovarova. The first three take-off Mi-1 20.09.1948 were performed on Zaharkovskom the airport, at the helm was a test pilot Baykalov MK
30.09.1948-1 at GM was developed speed 100 km / h, and after some time to reach the maximum - 170 km / h. Test flights have shown the instability in the region of the gear motor, the formation of cracks on it. The reason for this was the absence of inertial dampers, torsional vibration damping. The problem has been solved by introducing into the structure of rubber plugs on the main shaft.
Since the summer began, the state tests 1949 GM-1. Specific complaints on the work of the new helicopter did not have, except for the level of piloting and the magnitude of vibration. In 1950 year we conducted a test to perform emergency landings. In 50-years there have been many tests that check the operation of the MG-1 in mountainous terrain and difficult weather conditions.
In the early 50-ies of government of the USSR, it was decided the launch of a test batch of helicopters GM-1, which became known as the Mi-1, in Moscow. Due to underestimation of the possibility of helicopters for civil aviation and military uses the serial production of the Mi-1 constantly delayed.
1952-1953 years. - 30 helicopters manufactured at the Kazan aviation plant № 387. With 1954 city began to mass-produce the Mi-1 the Orenburg Aviation Plant № 47, which was picked up 1958 597 helicopters.
1956-1960 years. - Production of the Mi-1 became engaged in Rostov plant № 168, which came off the assembly line 370 aircraft units.
Later aviation industry of the USSR moved to Issue a Priority Mi-4, and it was decided to transfer the production of the Mi-1 Poland. For this purpose it took to sign the international agreement under which unfolded in Svidník production Soviet helicopter and its components. In Poland it has been collected 1683-1 Mi various variations and modifications.
At the end of 1948, in Serpukhov was established Training Squadron Air Force, which is developing the Mi-1 and training pilots. Before 1951 of aircrew training was conducted by helicopter T-3, 1951 and with it, the number of units joined Mi-1, which for a long time was the main training helicopter in the USSR.
In winter, the Mi 1954-1 began to be used in civil aviation. A few years later he joined the operation in the "Aeroflot". We can say, Mi and Mi-1-4 started to operate at the same time as they complement each other in the possibilities.
On the Mi-1 installed engines AI-26 580 hp power, which could raise up in the air 2,5 tons of weight. Plus these engines was rapidly changing from low speed to high, which reduces the likelihood of accidents.
However, the helicopter was resistant to a strong gust of crosswind, especially during landing. Sometimes there was a flutter of the rotor. Ignition engine is carried out by strong compression of the air, so when running it in a place with thin air (in the mountains) often had problems.
Mi-1 used in military and civil aviation, not only the USSR but also in other countries.
The good performance characteristics of this model confirmed by a number of records. In particular for 1957-1968 years, Mi-1 established twenty-seven world records. Most important:
- speed records - 141, 196 and 210 km / h at a distance of 1000, 500 and 100 m, respectively;
- flight range - 1654 km;
- altitude record - 6700 m;
- Eleven women's records.
Based on the authoritative statistics on the military aviation magazine "Flight International" in 1995 was in service around the world were about Mi 150-1.
Army modification Mi-1V actively used in China to fight against the forces of chanhayshistov, and other police operations. It is also used by the Egyptians and Syrians in their struggle against the Israeli army. In Iraq, he participated in operations to eliminate Kurdish protests.
In the Soviet Union Mi-1 peaked in transportation of mail in remote regions, used in the traffic police and was put into service in the Soviet Air Force. Decommissioning 1983, after the beginning of the extensive use of more advanced Mi-26.
In 1945 Miles of ML He defended his doctoral thesis "The dynamics of the rotor with hinged blades and its application to problems of stability and controllability of autogyro and helicopter", which outlines the experience of research unit of helicopters. Soon he began to develop an experienced helicopter EH-1 (helicopter pilot).
In the fall of 1947 state commission was represented by a full-size mock-up of the helicopter. A 12 December issued a decree on the establishment of the OKB-4, which is headed by ML Mil
Ready sample machine was named GM-1 (Mil helicopter). 20 September 1948 the helicopter first flew. In trials of GM-1 showed satisfactory performance characteristics. However, during the test flight crashed two cars. Cause of the accident there were technical flaws. Only through persistence and enthusiasm miles of the project had not been abandoned.
The helicopter went into production under the designation Mi-1. The first government order limited 15-yu machines. Initially, in the highest circles it is quite skeptical about the idea of the mass use of helicopters. The situation changed during the war in Korea, after the received information about the successful application of them Americans. Mi-1 and an opportunity to demonstrate to Stalin. After that, the helicopter began large-scale production. Competitors Mi-1, Yak and B-100-11, in the series did not go. With 1954 1960 for years. It was released 2680 machines.
The ship B-11.
By design, the Mi-1 - helicopter, made according to the classic single-rotor scheme with the tail rotor on the tail boom. The fuselage of semi-monocoque with aluminum trim. The cabin consists of a space pilot and placed him sitting for two passengers. Chassis tricycle fixed landing. Three-blade rotor. In the first production cars used the blade composite structure with steel, wood and linen items. In later versions installed all-metal blades made of aluminum alloy. Three-blade tail rotor with wooden blades. The power plant consists of a piston engine AI-26GRF (429 kW).
Mi-1 - multipurpose helicopter, which was used in the Air Force, and the Civil Aviation Authority of the Warsaw Pact. The medical version of the machine is equipped with two outboard nacelles for transportation of patients. You can set the machine gun and missiles.
Maximum takeoff weight 2330 kg. Maximum speed 185 km / h. Practical range 430 km. Service ceiling 3500 m. The payload consists of two passengers or cargo 255 kg.
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