Our great compatriot, scientist, inventor and poet Mikhail Lomonosov in the early 1754 was made in the message of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which is recorded in the minutes of the meeting of the Academy as follows:
"Mr. Advisor and Professor Lomonosov Assembly introduced on a small machine that would raise her up thermometers and other small tools, weather, and suggested drawing thereof as the machine; In order for the Lord deliberative signified his performance tested and put the office of the Academy of Sciences report IN request to soblagsivoleno had spoken to order a car according to the attached herewith drawing for the experience of this invention to make a poster of his master in looking Futsiusom master. And about the above in mind the report of the academic meeting in March 4 1754 days of "
Thus, we see that the idea of creating the world's first flying machine heavier than air came in Lomonosov in connection with the need to study the upper atmosphere.
A drawing "aerodromic machines" Lomonosov helicopter. This helicopter is the world's first point is shown in the test after it has been pre-equilibrated balance weights on the beam.
The minutes from the Academy in July 1 1754 was written:
"Bysoko-respected adviser Lomonosov showed the invention of the car, called them aerodromic (air-gal), which should be used to by a wing movable horizontally in different directions by spring force, which is usually supplied with the clock, press the air (to drop it down ), which made the car will rise into the upper layers of air, with a view to be able to inspect the condition (state) of the upper air by meteorological machines (devices) that are attached to this aerodromic car. The car was suspended on the cord, stretched over two blocks, and hold weights balance, suspended from the opposite end. As soon as the mainspring, [car] was raised in height and therefore he promised to achieve the desired effect. "
Looking at the drawing, we see that the model had two coaxial four-bladed rotor, which rotate in opposite directions.
Why is this done?
In order to set in motion any body need power. The force results from interaction of at least two bodies. And the power of action of the first body to the second-largest force is the impact of the second body to the first, but has the opposite direction. Wing, for example, creates the lifting force by interacting with the air. It discarding air down itself receives a lifting force directed upwards. This second response force is called the reaction force.
If the force passes through the center of gravity of the body, the body moves forward. If a force acts on the body away from the center of gravity, the body also receives a rotational motion around gravity center. In this case we say that the body is rotated under the action of force. The magnitude of the torque can be calculated if we multiply the amount of force at its shortest distance to the center of gravity (on the shoulder of her actions).
Just as every force opposed to the reactive force and moment of force entails the appearance of reluctance torque.
Consider the emergence of the jet moment as an example.
Shows a propeller, which can rotate freely on a support.
If screw A force is exerted through the center of gravity lies on the axis of rotation of the screw, the screw without rotation, with the stand will begin to move in the direction of the force. Reactive vultures in will affect the finger in the opposite direction.
Where, in this case the reaction force? The reaction force in this case will act from the rotor blade to the arm.
It will occur while the reaction torque acting on the stand? Of course not.
Let torque screw will be communicated not by hand, and the clock spring fixed at one end on the stand, and the other is rigidly connected to the screw. As a pre-twisted, the spring will begin to spin and rotate the screw, giving it a torque md and stand, telling her reluctance torque L7R. Moment Mp is equal in magnitude md, but opposite in direction.
With the action of reactive moment and faced Lomonosov once I started to make its model. In order to avoid rotation of the shell model, Lomonosov found ingeniously simple solution, which is still one of the classic ways to repay the reaction moment on the helicopter.
"Aerodromic machine" Lomonosov had two screws rotating in opposite directions. And if the reaction torque from one rotating screw sought chassis cars in one direction, the reactive torque from the second screw it sought to turn the body to the other side. And they are the same and the screws were rotated with equal speed, their reactive points are equal and therefore cancel each other. Housing machines in this case remains stationary during flight.
The idea of establishing a helicopter appeared much earlier than the idea of creating an aircraft.
Even in the writings of Leonardo da Vinci related to 1475 was found in the archives and libraries of Milan in the middle of the XIX century, there was a picture of the aircraft in which lift should create a rotating helical screw. Under the picture, and next to him with his hand, scientists have made the following entries:
"The frame screws must be made of iron wire, rope in thickness; distance from the circumference to the center should be equal to 8 elbows "(the elbow is about 60 cm. - AT).
"If the device is made as it should, that is. e. from durable canvas, which pores are carefully taped starch, then I think that in the near future it rotates a screw as it describes in the air, and cuts his rise up. In this you can easily make sure through the air wide fine line: if your hand is forced to follow the direction of the line edges. The canvas should be strengthened in the framework of a long thick cane. You can make a small model of the paper with the axis of the tightly coiled metal spring. If the spring to provide to itself, it will cause the propeller to rotate. "
Lomonosov did not know about the works of Leonardo da Vinci and all his work is done independently of him.
Difficulties theoretical, constructive and productive character for a long time hindered the improvement of the helicopter. Several decades helicopter was in the laboratories of scientists and experienced shops factories. Only thanks to the efforts of Russian scientists, many shortcomings were eliminated in the helicopter, the helicopter which opened the way for widespread use in all areas of the economy.
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