Heliport - a small airport, is intended to serve exclusively helicopters.
Heliports are classified to indicate the main differences to provide helicopter services, namely types serviced by helicopters; features facilities; conditions.
By type helicopters are divided as follows:
a) normal category. Helicopters with a maximum takeoff weight of up to 2700 kg, which are used mainly in-personal, business objectives, charter and commercial traffic, but not to transport works;
b) transport category. Helicopters with one or more engines, with unlimited flight weight, working on a regular or non-regular passenger lines, as well as freight traffic.
Facilities include a heliport passengers and (or) cargo facilities, helicopter parking areas, equipment for refueling and maintenance.
In the presence of facilities providing heliports are divided into subclasses:
A - without the minimal structures of buildings, equipment for refueling and maintenance;
B - limited facilities without equipment for refueling, maintenance;
C - constructions, including equipment for refueling and maintenance.
Heliports by type of operation are classified as follows: I class - private; Class II - small public; Class III - large public.
Most currently operating in the United States make up heliports heliports personal use for light single-engine helicopters. Now, however, some corporations are interested in larger single-engine and medium twin helicopters for public transport.
It is assumed that the length and width of the area for helicopters to be in 1,5 times the size of the helicopter in length and width. The platform also for the public heliport exceed in 2 times longer and 1.5 times the width of the helicopter.
If the site is located in the area with an unobstructed air approaches, such as the pier, which serves the water and has a good approach on three sides, the size of it may be somewhat less than the above. On the other hand, may need elevated heliport takeoff platform of greater length if there is no emergency landing areas along path takeoff and landing.
Landing zone is equal to the diameter of the rotor of the helicopter. For small helicopters this area is taken to be 6X6 m. The strength of the surface of the ground in the landing area must conform to dynamic loads from the helicopter chassis.
The peripheral area surrounding the landing area, with a minimum width in the overall length of the helicopter, but at least 3 m, it is recommended as a safe haven for private heliports class II. The minimum width is equal; half of the overall length of the helicopter, helicopters recommended for class III. The peripheral zone has a safety barrier on the outer edge in order to avoid intrusion on the working area of the heliport. This area must be free of dangerous or foreign objects on it do not have to perform operations that are incompatible with the safe operation of helicopters maneuvering at the heliport.
Helicopter parking zone is an integral part of the peripheral area. The length and width equal to the overall parking space lasted helicopter. The number of sites is determined by the average movement of the helicopter during peak hours. The distance between the parking lots - at least 3 m. The minimum number of parking lots - two.
Heliports can also have a zone of office buildings and maintenance, including the platform where the helicopters can maneuver and stay under loading (unloading). In some places, there are hangars for maintenance and storage building maintenance. The need for a variety of plants, their size and their required area depends on the general purpose of the heliport, the frequency of the existing and proposed operations, as well as the number of passengers, mail and cargo volumes.
Approach and departure trajectories are selected to provide the most favorable ways of approach and departure. Trajectories starting at the edge of the site and sent to the possibility to meet the prevailing winds. It is recommended to have at least two paths at an angle 90 °extends upwardly and outwardly from the lateral boundary areas with a slight slope.
The use of a larger tilt will complicate the use of the heliport in adverse weather conditions.
For single-rotor helicopter base plane of the obstacle limitation may be spaced from the side of the site at a distance equal to the radius of the rotor helicopter, to be located parallel to the side of the platform.
All objects, buildings, obstacles, and so on. N. Or part of them "who are in the area or the above conventional planes are removed, as may threaten the safety of helicopters in the area of heliports.
In the absence or unsuitability of sites at ground level it is possible to use the raised areas, which are due to isolation and more open air approaches attracted the attention of designers.
Landing area elevated heliport is designed to meet the most heavy-lift helicopters, which will work on it, additional loads arising from the movement of staff. Other- types of loads (snow, soil, equipment, and so on. D.) Are taken into account in the design of the frame and floor heliport landing pad.
Designer elevated heliport calculates the strength of the mounting surface, taking into account the weight of the helicopter and landing characteristics, taking into account that the landing surface can act in a dynamic load with a rough landing of the helicopter.
The landing surface must withstand a concentrated load of 150% of the maximum weight of the helicopter.
It is manufactured seating surface areas of the concrete slabs, asphalt, metal or treated wood.
The increasing role of helicopters as an important element in the national transportation system. US require a clear, understanding of the capabilities of this aircraft. Naturally, to get the greatest return is required to provide this type of transport is widely developed system of heliports.
For passenger traffic, they should be placed in close proximity to transport hubs - in the center of large settlements, at airports, railway stations and so on. P. For cargo - near the industrial sites, databases.
Heliports, elevated platforms or located on the roofs of buildings, are advantageous from an economic point of view and do not call for the creation of additional structures, especially if they are included in the original design of the building.
Covering heliports done with a view to ensuring the design strength and create a smooth surface, free of dust and other particles that are blown by air currents from the rotor.
The coatings can be natural (soil, sod), artificial (concrete, asphalt, wood, and so on. N.).
Each is equipped with a heliport and different indicators of wind direction. If the heliport is used at night, he has illuminated the external borders and identification light beacon.
Marking landing area must clearly define it as a platform for helicopters. The size of a standard platform 27 m and more. From the edges of the need to retreat and accordingly make the layout area size of 22,5 m.
Landing zone must be clearly delineated by a border width of at least 0,3 m. On the bright surfaces signs visibility should be outlined in black.
Identification mark is recommended for ground and elevated platforms.
Showed signs recommended for heliport air ambulance in the United States This symbol is used for many years.
Dana markings on the roof of a tall building to indicate the places where helicopters can: sit in an emergency situation for the evacuation of people from the building. This is especially the torus. If the heliport is located at the airport, the airport fire-fighting equipment is used for the heliport. Heliports also equipped with portable fire extinguishers weighing 14 and 70 kg dry chemical foam type, which are stored in special boxes.
Unauthorized access to the working area of the heliport (landing site, the peripheral zone) are not allowed. For this Delhi area fenced fence height of no more than 0,9 m.
The raised platform with no parapet parking, equipped with a safety device extending from the edges of the pad 45 ° angle to the horizon. Transitional track on the roof to access the work area shall be equipped with handrails.
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