AN Tupolev in 1946 year decide for a short time to design and build on the principle of air units of the machine B-4 (which was created on the basis of the US In-29) four-passenger aircraft with cabin hermetic type, who would be able to meet international requirements for long-haul aircraft. B-4 is a great base model, since it is well demonstrated in the factory itself, and flight tests. Deputy chief designer, together with his subordinates, it was decided as a codification of the aircraft «70».
After approval of the sketch began construction of a new passenger layout apparatus (February 1946 years). In the same year, in mid-March, the Council of Ministers has set the task of OKB Tupolev about designing and building passenger aircraft Tu-12 based B-4. Tu-12 an official designation for this aircraft. Initially considered the construction of the prototype, the serial production it was decided to talk after the state tests.
The acceleration of construction of the first Tu-70 has been decided to be influenced by the maximum use of units of two cars in the US-29. The first one was completely dismantled in order to copy it, and the other was damaged during a forced landing in the north of the country. From In-29 decided to withdraw and use in the construction of aircraft engine nacelles, removable part of the wing flaps, landing gear and the main mechanism of cleaning certain parts of the equipment and components of aircraft systems, and the tail feathers. Since the new machine is designed for an air circuit nizkoplan, center section was performed again, and he was slightly increased in scope.
Completely new to the airplane fuselage became hermetic (diameter 3,6 m) with thiokol tape and hermetic riveting. The fuselage was designed to drop 0,57 atmospheres. The technology used for the first time in the USSR. For the first time in the course of construction of the machine check its integrity made way air supply to the current drop. Among other things, it stands out among the innovations more appropriate step form before the cabin crew.
According to the project it was clear that «70-th" is a passenger aircraft type, the main purpose of which is the commission on international flights and long-haul domestic and transoceanic routes. Ability comfortable liner to conquer a large distance with passengers on board gave him the right to be first-class heavy passenger plane. It involves the construction of Tu-70 in three versions:
1) line - is designed to 72 passenger seats with the presence of two first-class cabins;
2) mixed, which would be placed before the 40 48 from a man with two front passenger luxury cabin and rear cabin of the first class;
3) special government - 10-15 people the highest echelon.
The first prototype was built in the beginning of October 1946 years. Immediately afterwards it was decided to start production tests. They were held in the period from October to February 46 1947 years. November 1946 year was a significant date for this air machine, because it has made its first flight. In the air he raised three people: a test pilot and commander F. Opadchiy second pilot A. Flight and chief project engineer Mikhail Yegorov. The flight was successful, however, it occurred unpleasant story during the fourth test flight.
The aircraft was damaged after a forced landing due to the fact that even in the air damage from one of the engines caught fire. The commander of the aircraft still managed to put the car, nobody was hurt. Engineers from design bureau conducted a thorough examination and found a serious flaw in the initial design of the control unit American puffing engine. The great merit in the renovation project engineer assigned to the master M. Yegorov, as he meticulously approached the problem of American power plant. It is because of this defect in the design of the engine 1943 was killed in an American test-29.
Thanks to the work of identifying and correcting structural errors all released Tu-4 been finalized. Tu-70 began to recover directly in the field. After completions across the power plant and its test aircraft flight testing continued until October 1947 years. After that was conducted a number of inspections and dovodok design, after which the aircraft was sent to the state tests. The Commission checked the plane until December of the same year, and the result was the approval of the aircraft, as it corresponded to the objectives and parameters set by the government.
First, the decision was made about the production of the aircraft into series production. The plan was to release 20 copies, but the aircraft never went into series. The reasons were a lot, but the most important was a big congestion of aircraft manufacturing plants release of new series of combat aircraft for the Air Force, including Tu-4. An additional reason was even simpler. Domestic line CAF that period did not need such a large passenger carrier.
"Aeroflot" was not angling a plane because it fully satisfied the IL-12 and Li-2. A similar situation occurred with quite good and promising military transport Tu-75. Soviet Air Force felt that it is inappropriate and premature for the Airborne Troops. But this work was not in vain, because the construction of ships with a huge range of flight, defined new powerful turboprop and turbojet engines enabled the Soviet aircraft look to build long-range passenger aircraft from a new angle.
History passenger airliner Tu-70 1954 ends in the year. Due to the incompetent and the emergence of "Aeroflot" a new and modernized aircraft of the same class «70-th" was decommissioned and scrapped.
Tupolev Tu-70 characteristics:
|Aircraft Length m||35.61|
|Wing area, m2||161.70|
|engine's type||4 PD AL-73TK|
|Thrust, kN||X 4 2375|
|Cruising speed, km / h||563|
|Practical range, km||4900|
|Practical ceiling, m|
|Payload:||48 to passengers|
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