For a long time in the Russian engineers from Tupolev Design Bureau work on supersonic aircraft. The initial changes in this area were the Tu-144, Tu-144LL and long-range supersonic Tu-22MZ and Tu-160, intended for fighting. In the production of these devices provides active assistance and TsAGI has long maintained cooperation with KAPO (Kazan Aviation Production Association). It is CAPO is the only in Russia and Europe manufacturer of high-thermal-structural resource.
Since due to environmental restrictions on the creation of large supersonic aircraft project SPS-2 in the near future is unlikely to be realized, it is possible to create a promising small-sized business jets - SBS. This unit is in the Tupolev Tu named-444. Firstly, it should be noted that a significant low cost of designing aircraft in comparison with supersonic airbus. Also reduces environmental requirements.
The prospect of the plane lies in the amount of possible future sales. This refers to the export of approximately 500 units SBS. This technique is interested in any state, as virtually 24 hours it can send passengers from one continent to another and back.
In designing the shape and type of the Tu-444 influenced by the following factors:
- The analysis of the planned flight paths with the greatest passenger traffic, which connects the main centers of 75 the world (within the Tu-444), demonstrate the following:
- Estimated range flight flight will 7000-7500 km;
- creation of SBS with a range of 11 000-12 000 km is impractical because of the high cost of construction and the rare cases of a similar distance flight.
- Operated by TU and TU-144-160 demonstrate the adequacy of the decision to limit the number of cruise supersonic speed M = 2,0 for constructive resource constraints and high-altitude cruise.
- All work carried out by engineers and designers of OKB for Airbus passenger supersonic Tu-244, decided on positive values load on the wings - 320 kg / m2.
- Operation famous business jets (CessnaIII, Bae 125, Falcon 900, Gulfstrim II, III, V) showed that, regardless of the maximum spaciousness of the number of passengers may be 3-6 people.
- After analyzing the global network of airfield runways, concluded that the feasibility of using the runway, not exceeding the mark 1800 m.
The design of the Tu-444
This construction will be carried out on a "tailless". Cantilever wing will be located low and have developed root nodules. Vertical single-fin tail will whole-turning.
To improve the runways and improving the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft constructed statically unstable in the lateral and longitudinal directions using electro-distance multi-channel management. The same is equipped with adaptive wing flap and elevons to hang on takeoff and landing. Strong balancing tail end surface of the wing. Currently it is checked need to use the retractable front multislot destabilizer created by the type of "Tu-144».
Designed to enhance the aerodynamic qualities of the adaptive wing socks on flight tests conducted for the prototype, it is not likely to involve. Needless characterized aerodynamic wing steep, variable geometry and complex deformation of the central surface. Relative thickness of the wing tends to vary in scope in gradations from up to 2,5 3,5 percent.
All of the wing (naplyvnaya) is an integral multiple units fuel tank. Bays cleaning the main landing gear are located in the main part between the pods.
On the military plane Tu-160 were completely copied adjustable supersonic air intakes with a vertical wedge. They were placed on the lower wing surface naplyvnuyu. Turbofan engines are shifted back from the bottom of the wing box. They turned on a small top corner, allowing the nozzle to shield the rear fuselage and the keel, and this in turn led to a decrease in the noise level at the sides during takeoff and climb. To extend the range of flight tests, and lay the groundwork for future long-term programs for prototype engines decided to install cameras feed type.
Regarding the series production agreed at Tu-444 install turbojet engines besforsazhny brand AL-32M by NPO "Saturn". Continuous base for the creation of such a turbofan engine AL-served 31F and promising option chosen AL-41F-1. This engine meets all the basic requirements for aircraft power plant program SBS.
From a technological point of view, in addition to the "rules of the area", the fuselage divided into three parts: the nose, middle and tail. Sealed nose portion (the pilot cabin) has mounted equipment bays, extra cleaning (nose) landing gear, kitchen, vestibule with wardrobe, with a built-in folding ladder, toilet compartments and the passenger compartment on 6-10 people. The middle part, which is also the integral fuel tank is in the bottom of the compartment air conditioning system. Bays hydraulic, electric systems and DSR are in the tail section.
Since the prototype aircraft will sooner or later move into a production stage, it should be able development. Thus, the piloting equipment decided to perform navigation of the open structure.
As the plane is air car business class, it will be fully complement systems and life support of the crew and passengers. In the event of an emergency on board the installed emergency equipment.
The most important for EDB is to provide a universal prototype demonstrator. It is necessary to show the high quality and the benefits of its existence, since it will depend on the number of attracted sponsorship funds and forces.
- 2125 km. at one o'clock
The length of the plane
- 36.00 meters
- 6.50 meters
- 16.20 meters
Range of flight
- 7500 km.
Description of the aircraft:
The supersonic Tu-444 designed for the business aviation sector.
Of small business supersonic Tu-444, calculated on 6-10 people.
The required length of the runway is 1830 meters.
Number of beds:
- Crew: 2
- Passengers in Business Class: 10
- Take-off (m): 41.00
- An unladen (t): 19.30
- Pay load (t): 1.00
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