Tu-244: the return of supersonic aircraft in the sky
In the near future, Russia may again return to the sky supersonic passenger airliners, and an excellent tool for this is the continuation of works on creating a final developed during the Soviet era supersonic jet aircraft Tu-244.
According to the most conservative official statements, the Tu-244 aircraft is likely to be commissioned in 2025 year, that is, literally in 10 years. Of course, as expected, its appearance will differ slightly from the development of Soviet aircraft builders, but in general, the air car will remain so, as was intended.
Jet supersonic Tu-244 4 will have turbojet engines, which allow to raise the airplane to an altitude of 20 thousand meters, which will significantly relieve the currently used areas. However, with this comes the need for a long runway, but this task is quite feasible and relatively inexpensive, especially since a number of airports can already take such aviasudna.
Technical characteristics of the supersonic aircraft are also very modern, although the work was carried out in far 1971 year. Estimated speed of the aircraft must reach 2175 km / h, but not ruled out the possibility that it will be increased up to 2500 km / h. The estimated number of passengers that can be taken on board an aircraft is about 300 people that, in principle, corresponds to modern trends in civil aviation. Rocket supersonic aircraft Tu-244 It will have a huge size - its length will be about 88 meters, wingspan - 45 meters and a height of about 15 meters. However, at the moment engineers aircraft manufacturers solve two very important tasks that really make the aircraft a truly modern:
- The increase in flight distance, as Soviet engineers decided that flight to 9200 kilometers is good, but in reality, it is very small;
- Reduced fuel consumption of the aircraft, as we recall, precisely because of this reason, the whole world abandoned the use of jet airliners.
If the first problem is solved relatively easily, then this is the second may have a number of difficulties. However, work on this project underway, and it is possible that in the near future, we will be able to see the supersonic airliner Tu-244 in the sky.
The benefits of using supersonic jet airliners are indisputable:
- Flights between regions, countries and continents will be as quickly and comfortably as the passengers will be able to reach the point of its destination in three or more times faster;
- In view of the large-capacity aircraft, will be able to somewhat reduce the cost of air travel itself;
- Increase ease of aircraft maintenance, as one large aircraft will serve much faster than the two small aircraft.
Examining the project supersonic aircraft of the second generation of ATP-2 started around since at 1971 1973 year. Engineers from design bureau, citing the experience of the creation of the Soviet Tu-144 and American ATP announced the project prepared by the Tu-244.
We are focused on the technical characteristics of existing and projected types of subsonic airliners. The calculations also included the competitiveness of the aircraft with respect to economic efficiency, environmental acceptability and provided facilities for passengers.
The criteria for efficiency focus fell on the great performance of ATP-2 compared to subsonic machines. That is, the number of aircraft of the type Tu-244 much smaller, but the higher the efficiency. On the one hand, the ATP-2 required large amounts of fuel, but, on the other hand, the carrier to such planes would need half as compared with conventional regular flights.
From an environmental point of view, the SPS-2 was both profitable and not. During the creation of a supersonic aircraft (60-e - 70-e) especially on environmental factors were not looking. But the same sonic booms, the release of harmful substances, noise on the ground and a negative impact on the ozone layer carrying an adverse impact on the creation of aircraft.
Creation of the ATP-2 25 took more years. During this time, the OKB employees have designed several options Tu-244. They have differences in terms of aerodynamic configuration, powerplant, airframe and flight characteristics. If you take comparison PCA-2 and 1-SPS, it is possible to observe a huge difference in the level of aerodynamics, propulsion efficiency and overall weight and overall dimensions. Initially, all work on the ATP-2 personally led Tupolev, but after a while the duties conferred on designer A. Pukhov. M. Kazakov was engaged in technical guidance on the aircraft Tu-244.
The first project planned for the Tu-244 became an option, produced in 1973 year. It was planned to establish four general thrust of the engine 37 500 kg. Cruising supersonic mode - 1,23 kg / kg per hour. Take-off weight - 360 t payload - 30 t Depending on the layout options for the aircraft could take on board from the 264 321 to the passenger.. The total wing area - 1100 m2. Upon reaching a cruising speed of the device could fly a distance of 8000 km.
The base for the aircraft served Tu-144. To increase the value kmax aircraft engineers reduced the relative midsection nacelles and fuselage attached more elongated wing. Mechanization of the wing leading edge was applied in the form of a deflectable bows. Placing separate nacelle with axial air intakes above the maximum thickness of the wing.
At the end of the year 76 defense industry of the USSR put forward a decision on the ATP-2, which was determined by the order of creation and the main data on the Tu-244. According to this decision the first SPS-2 should be small in size with a takeoff weight of up to 275 m Wing area -. 750 m2, Take-off weight of engines - up to 27 500 kg. But the decision took into account the possibility of creating a larger unit.
By the year 1985 EDO staff prepared a technical proposal for the Tu-244 the presence of DIC, giving takeoff thrust to 24 000 kg. The use of variable cycle engine would allow to the best extent optimize power plant operation in different flight modes used and created the ability to perform highly economical subsonic flight over areas with high population density.
draft version of the ATP-2 using engines on liquid hydrogen is also considered.
In 1993, the two units of the Tu-144D converted into a flying laboratory to perform the type of work on the project of the second generation of ATP.
The x-80 and 90-ies of the creation of such aircraft was a question about the necessity and rationality of their use altogether. All leading countries (France, USA, Germany, Italy, UK, USSR, Japan, and Italy) have started to coordinate environmental and economic factors.
Complete information about the future of the aircraft was made available to all at the Paris Air Show in 1993 year. The planned period of air entering the machine operation - 2025 year. We plan to create about 100 passenger aircraft.
General Arrangement plane is calculated to provide a large aerodynamic qualities, regardless of flight mode.
The trapezoid wing Tu-244 is an influx from the complex deformation of the middle surface and variable profile along the span. The ailerons provide control of roll and pitch and balance. By the front edge of the mounted type of mechanized deflected socks. From the structural point of view, the wing has an average (passes through the fuselage), and the front part of the console. The middle part of the console and use mnogolonzheronnuyu mnogonervyurnuyu and power schemes, the front - beznervyurnaya. In the most loaded wheel it decided to use the material from the high-titanium alloy VT-6CH.
Vertical tail from the constructive point of view seems to be on the wing, but for the direction of responsible two-piece wheel.
The structure of the fuselage consists of the pressurized cabin, fore and aft compartments. Depending on the different configurations of the fuselage diameter may be different. Also on the diameter is directly proportional to affect the future of seating capacity. For example, if the passenger is on the 250 320 to people, the best choice would be the diameter of a mark - 3,9 m. In this case, the chair will be placed in such a way: of tourism and business-class - 3 + 3, and the first class - 2 + 2. Introduced in height 4,1 m solves the problem with the installation of convenient trunk under the passenger compartment floor. Additionally, you can conveniently carry out loading containers. A similar cross-section of the fuselage of the plane Tu-204. Accordingly, the Tu-244 pressurized cabin made of aluminum alloy, and the tail and the nose compartment made of composite materials.
It should be noted that the plane does not have the "lantern" cockpit or deflected nose, as in the base model Tu-144. In flight, the necessary review will be carried out at the expense of glass cockpit and on the movements of the earth (WFP), landing and take-off the required visibility will be done by providing a system of optical-electronic survey, which works in any weather conditions and regardless of the time of day.
For chassis refers front desk and three major. In turn, the external rack triaxial and removed in the wing, and the center has a biaxial truck and hidden in the fuselage. A similar stand is located in the nasal support Tu-144. Application in the construction of three main pillars carried out to ensure the impact of the specified loads on the concrete runway. Navigation and flight equipment will provide a landing on IIIA category of ICAO.
|fuselage length, m||88,7|
|Wing area, m2||1200|
|Sweep the wing leading edge||center section||75 on|
|The width of the fuselage, m||3,9|
|The height of the fuselage, m||4,1|
|The luggage compartment, m3||32|
|Takeoff (maksimmalnaya), kg||350000|
|Aircraft without fuel, kg||172000|
|Fuel weight, kg||178 000|
|Link (forced), kgs||4h 33000|
|Cruising speed M||2,05|
|Practical flight range, km||9200|
|Flight altitude, m||2001-2003|
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