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The aircraft was manufactured in various versions: Tu-Tu-22A 22B scout Tu-22R, missile carrier Tu-22K, jammer Tu-22P and trainer Tu-22U. Most of the above was presented in the presence of a refueling system on a "hose-cone".
Reconnaissance version of the Tu-22R, Tu-22RM carried species, radio and electronic intelligence. Also, they could carry out aerial photography in the frontal area and the operational area of the opponent, aided by the installation of the three on-board cameras.
In addition to reconnaissance, created a special educational version of the Tu-22U for training pilots piloting and piloting.
Tu-22P modification designed to create passive and active interference in the centimeter, decimeter and meter range. The new, more powerful radar, which was installed on the Tu-22P to track aerial targets and guide them fighters, and has also been linked with ground-based air defenses.
Tu-22 has become the most accidental aircraft of the Soviet Army: to 1975 20, it was broken% fleet, ie, approximately 70 machines.
Finally the aircraft was removed from the Navy and the Air Force of Russia in 90-ies.
As part of the Soviet Air Force serial bomber Tu-22 began to arrive in two versions with 1962 years. Tu-22B was designed for pinpoint strikes on the sea, stationary and sedentary goals. The second variant of the Tu-Tu-22K 22KD could be equipped with a supersonic missile X-22 "Storm" class "air-surface" or the bombs of free fall a total weight of up to 13 t.
The armament of the aircraft was located not only in the main center-bomb bay, but also on the main landing gear pods, which are set aside for the PEAKS cartridges. rear hemisphere protection is provided by a remote-controlled gun mount DC-20, in which included a gun F-23.
The crew consisted of the captain, navigator and on-board operator.
On Tu-22 was the most modern avionics that time. It included radar "Rubin-1A" forward-looking (in the missile-carriers - radar "PN"), cannon defensive unit control radar "Argon-2", astrotracker BC-63A, gun telepritsel TP-1, navigation Bomber Machine TSNVU-1 , radio altimeter RV-25A, autopilot AP-7MTS, radio compass ARK-11, EW, radar systems near navigation RSBN-2S.
Tu-22 was equipped with an ejection seat during landing crew jobs chair fell down due electrolifts.
In the later series Tu-22 refueling system installed in the air. Its got 176 copies.
In the operation of the aircraft revealed several deficiencies. On the high-speed flight regimes due to air fluctuations and failures over the location of the engines tail car it became difficult to manage. This reversed the effect of ailerons made it necessary to limit the maximum speed of the aircraft to 1,4 M. plating heating and deformation of the structure caused a spontaneous shift in the control rods, which generated strong turns and heeling moment.
The aircraft became unstable in the management and just give in pitching. To resolve the above disadvantages, installed automatic longitudinal stability AU-105A, pitch dampers DT 105A, automatic extra effort ADU-105A. Inconvenience for the crew were high landing speed of aircraft ejection seats down and a bad review from the workplace.
Motors VD 7M also were not thorough. Later, they were replaced by more reliable and powerful RD-Turbojet 7M2, held constant modernization of copies in use.
Every day to operate the aircraft was very problematic. Preliminary training took up the whole day, preflight - up to 3,5 hours. Due to the placement of the engines at high altitude complicates access to it for maintenance.
During the repair or maintenance of Tu-22 experts had to have powerful hearing protection due to strong broadband heard on screen power plants.
Weak reliability and nedovedennost some of the most important systems in the state of safe use has led to a series of aircraft crashes this series. Errors and design flaws are constantly corrected by modifications EDO staff and Soviet industry. Until normal conditions, allowing safe use, Tu-22 was brought only in the middle 80-ies. The most problematic was the missile carrier Tu-22K.
Development of the aircraft is not given to each pilot. In the history of its operation were precedents failure to conduct pilots Tu-22 because of severe handling and high accident unit.
Tu-22 was removed from the Russian Air Force weapons in 1994, the last aircraft copies sent for recycling in 1994 g, despite the presence of an adequate supply of resources.
Despite all the bad things that have happened during the creation and operation of the Tu-22, this model served as a basis for further development of multi-mode supersonic missile carrier Tu-22M.
The supersonic twin-engine bomber OKBTupolev was armed with 1959, the mass-produced.
Powerplant: two turbojet engines VD-7 12100 kg of thrust.
The performance characteristics of the Tu-22
Span, m 27,7
Length, m 40,5
Height, m 8,7
Wing area, m2 188,5
Useful Weight, 10 000
Launch weight, kg 84 000
Flight speed at an altitude of 12000 m, km / h 1590
Flight range, km 1400-3200
Ceiling, m 18 000
one gun, 23 mm
Simultaneously with the creation of the Tu-22 work was completed in preparation for the production of Tu-22M, which went on a small number of service in 1972, the peculiarity of the Tu-22M was wing with variable geometry in flight.
Powerplant: two turbojet engine NK-144 19 600 thrust of kg.
The performance characteristics of the Tu-22M:
Length, m 40,2
Height, m 9,1
Wing area, m2 166
Empty weight, kg 50 000
Useful weight, kg 8000
Launch weight, kg 110 000
Flight speed at an altitude of M = 1,8-2M
Flight speed at the ground, km / h 900
Flight range, km 3600
Ceiling, m 17 000
Cannon 1 30 mm x
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